Molluscum Contagiosum – Pathophysiology, Causes and Treatment

Definition Molluscum contagiosum is a mild skin disease (skin infection) caused by a virus (molluscum contagiosum virus, a member of the Poxviridae family) that causes usually painless small bumps or lumps (flesh-colored or skin-colored, dome-shaped papules); some may be umbilicated, meaning the lesion has a central depression with a spot …

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Refsum Disease – Causes, Pathophysiology and Complications

Definition Refsum disease is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the fatty acid phytanic acid. When phytanic acid accumulates, it causes a number of progressive problems, including retinitis pigmentosa, peripheral neuropathy, anosmia, deafness, cerebellar ataxia and elevated protein concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of an …

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Erysipelas – Complications, Treatment and Prevention

Definition Erysipelas is an infection of the upper layers of the skin (superficial). The most common cause is group A streptococcal bacteria, especially Streptococcus pyogenes. Erysipelas results in a fiery red rash with raised edges that can easily be distinguished from the skin around it. The affected skin may be …

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Prader-Willi syndrome – Complications, Risk Factors and Treatment

Definition Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic condition that affects many parts of the body. In infancy, this condition is characterized by weak muscle tone (hypotonia), feeding difficulties, poor growth, and delayed development. Beginning in childhood, affected individuals develop an insatiable appetite, which leads to chronic overeating (hyperphagia) and obesity. …

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