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Rhinophyma – Types, Pathophysiology and Treatment

Definition Rhinophyma is a benign condition of the nasal skin that results in abnormal growth and enlargement of the nose. While this is not cancerous, it results in a reddened, “bumpy” appearance of the nose that can be highly disfiguring. The etiology of this condition is multifactorial, but it is …

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) – Causes, and Diagnosis

Definition Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that infects the nose, throat, lungs, and breathing passages. RSV spreads through contact with respiratory droplets (coughing, sneezing, or kissing) from an infected person or touching surfaces contaminated with the virus and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. RSV …

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Rhabdomyolysis – Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Prevention

What is rhabdomyolysis? Rhabdomyolysis can be a life-threatening condition caused by muscle breakdown and muscle death. This dangerous muscle damage can result from overexertion, trauma, toxic substances or disease. As muscle cells disintegrate, they release a protein called myoglobin into the blood. The kidneys are responsible for removing this myoglobin from the …

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Rhabdomyosarcoma – Pathophysiology, Staging, and Prognosis.

Introduction Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a type of soft tissue sarcoma (tumour). Fewer than 60 children are diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma in the UK each year. Most of them are younger than 10 years old. It is more common in boys than girls. More children than ever are surviving childhood cancer. There …

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Refsum Disease – Causes, Pathophysiology and Complications

Definition Refsum disease is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the fatty acid phytanic acid. When phytanic acid accumulates, it causes a number of progressive problems, including retinitis pigmentosa, peripheral neuropathy, anosmia, deafness, cerebellar ataxia and elevated protein concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of an …

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