Definition Rectocele is a herniation (bulge) of the front wall of the rectum into the back wall of the vagina. The tissue between the rectum and the vagina is known as the rectovaginal septum and this structure can become thin and weak over time, resulting in a rectocele. When rectoceles …Read More »
Rhinophyma – Types, Pathophysiology and Treatment
Definition Rhinophyma is a benign condition of the nasal skin that results in abnormal growth and enlargement of the nose. While this is not cancerous, it results in a reddened, “bumpy” appearance of the nose that can be highly disfiguring. The etiology of this condition is multifactorial, but it is …Read More »
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) – Causes, and Diagnosis
Definition Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that infects the nose, throat, lungs, and breathing passages. RSV spreads through contact with respiratory droplets (coughing, sneezing, or kissing) from an infected person or touching surfaces contaminated with the virus and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. RSV …Read More »
Rhabdomyolysis – Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Prevention
What is rhabdomyolysis? Rhabdomyolysis can be a life-threatening condition caused by muscle breakdown and muscle death. This dangerous muscle damage can result from overexertion, trauma, toxic substances or disease. As muscle cells disintegrate, they release a protein called myoglobin into the blood. The kidneys are responsible for removing this myoglobin from the …Read More »
Reactive Arthritis – Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention.
Overview Reactive arthritis is a condition that causes redness and swelling (inflammation) in various joints in the body, especially the knees, feet, toes, hips and ankles. It usually develops after you’ve had an infection, particularly a sexually transmitted infection or food poisoning. In most cases, it clears up within a …Read More »
Rheumatic fever – Pathophysiology, Symptoms and Treatment
Definition Rheumatic fever is a disease that can occur following an infection caused by the Group A streptococcus bacterium. If untreated, an infection such as ‘strep throat’ may lead to a delayed complication featuring widespread inflammation in other parts of the body, particularly the joints, heart, skin and brain. Rheumatic …Read More »
Rhabdomyosarcoma – Pathophysiology, Staging, and Prognosis.
Introduction Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a type of soft tissue sarcoma (tumour). Fewer than 60 children are diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma in the UK each year. Most of them are younger than 10 years old. It is more common in boys than girls. More children than ever are surviving childhood cancer. There …Read More »
Refsum Disease – Causes, Pathophysiology and Complications
Definition Refsum disease is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the fatty acid phytanic acid. When phytanic acid accumulates, it causes a number of progressive problems, including retinitis pigmentosa, peripheral neuropathy, anosmia, deafness, cerebellar ataxia and elevated protein concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of an …Read More »