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Refsum Disease – Causes, Pathophysiology and Complications

Definition Refsum disease is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the fatty acid phytanic acid. When phytanic acid accumulates, it causes a number of progressive problems, including retinitis pigmentosa, peripheral neuropathy, anosmia, deafness, cerebellar ataxia and elevated protein concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of an …

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Reye’s syndrome- Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Definition Reye’s syndrome is a rare but serious disease that is characterized by cerebral and hepatic impairment that occurs after influenza, a respiratory infection, or chickenpox. Reye’s syndrome mainly affects children and adolescents. It sometimes affects infants, and very rarely affects adults. It appears most often in the wintertime when …

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Rubella – Overview, Risk Factors, and Prevention.

Overview – Rubella Rubella is commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles — is an infection that mostly affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is caused by the rubella virus (not the same virus that causes measles). German measles spreads when people breathe in virus-infected fluid, such as …

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Rotavirus Infection – Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis.

Overview – Rotavirus Infection Rotavirus Infection is caused by Rotavirus, a contagious virus that causes diarrhea. It’s the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and children worldwide, resulting in over 215,000 deaths annually. Before the development of a vaccine, most children in the United States had been infected with …

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Reflux laryngitis- Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Definition Reflux laryngitis or laryngopharyngeal reflux disease also abbreviated LPR. Digestive acid and enzymes flow upward from the stomach through the esophagus to the level of the vocal folds. This is the same process that causes gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, except that otolaryngologists are preoccupied with its effects at …

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