Definition Hypocalcemia is a condition where blood levels of calcium are low. Hypocalcemia is a total serum calcium concentration < 8.5 mg/dL (< 2.13 mmol/L) in the presence of normal plasma protein concentrations or a serum ionized calcium concentration < 4.7 mg/dL (< 1.17 mmol/L). Normal calcium values range from …Read More »
Xerophthalmia – Definition, Risk factors, and Treatments.
Definition Xerophthalmia is a medical condition in which the eye film is reduced and the eye is incapable of producing tears. This appears when there is something wrong with lacrimal glands and their main function, meaning to produce tears, is affected. Xerophthalmia is also known as the dry eye syndrome …Read More »
Scurvy – Causes, Symptoms, Complications, and Prevention.
Introduction Scurvy is a disease caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid, in which the breakdown of intercellular cement substances leads to capillary haemorrhages and defective growth of fibroblasts, osteoblasts, and odontoblasts results in impaired synthesis of collagen, osteoid, and dentine. It is characterized by haemorrhagic gingivitis affecting …Read More »
Keratomalacia – Root Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis.
Introduction Keratomalacia is a pathological condition of the eyes which is caused as a result of deficiency of vitamin A. This disease causes scarring of the cornea and fibrotic deformity of the eyeballs. The role of vitamin A for the eyes is to maintain structures like cornea and conjunctiva. In …Read More »
Hypocobalaminemia – Complications, Causes, and Treatment.
Introduction Hypocobalaminemia or Vitamin B12 deficiency, as the name indicates, it is a condition characterized by a lack of the water soluble vitamin known as B12. A deficiency of this vitamin, which is vital for physical processes, increases the risk of heart attack and can damage the nerve cells apart …Read More »
Biotin Deficiency – Causes, Risk factors, and Medications.
Introduction Biotin deficiency is a rare nutritional disease which can become serious when not properly treated. Vitamin B7 is available in several food sources. Intestinal fauna synthesizes fair amounts of this nutrient. Low circulating levels of the vitamin B7 occurs in certain specific health conditions. Biotin inadequacy can result in …Read More »
Beriberi – Risk Factors, Manifestations, and Diagnosis.
What is Beriberi? Beriberi is a syndrome characterized by a group of symptoms exhibited by people who are deficient in Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine. Therefore, it usually afflicts malnourished individuals’ particularly in underdeveloped countries. Two kinds of beriberi are well known. Wet beriberi leads to cardiovascular dysfunction while …Read More »