Orchitis – Introduction, Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis.


Orchitis is an inflammatory disorder occurring in one or both testicles of males, widely caused by various types of bacterial and viral infections. It is a type of infection may also be a progression of epididymitis, an infection with the tube that carries semen from the testicles. This condition is called epididymo-orchitis. It may also be caused by sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. In children with this disorder is generally caused by the infection with mumps virus.

Types of orchitis

There are two types of orchitis as follows:

Acute orchitis

  • Acute orchitis always occurs as a secondary disease or complication of cystitis, urethritis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis and other reproductive diseases. It is often caused by urinary infection commonly in young adults and kids.
  • The symptoms of Acute orchitis are sudden fever and chill, pain in the scrotum, swelling, redness, tense skin, frequent urinating, hydrocele in the testis, and pain of touch.

Chronic orchitis

  • A chronic orchitis is a severe form of acute orchitis which cannot be alleviated for a long time. The disease conditions that often lead to chronic orchitis is syphilis of the testis, and also the trauma of the testis.
  • Signs and symptoms include hard and enlarged testis, hard sperm duct and testis that do not stick to skin.


The prevalence of those situations in isolation is uncommon, with epididymitis and orchitis commonly going on together. Approximately 20% of prepubertal sufferers (extra younger than 10 years) with mumps broaden orchitis. Unilateral testicular atrophy takes vicinity in 60% of patients with this disorder. Sterility has been hardly ever a final result of unilateral orchitis.

In the US, it is anticipated that there are 600,000 instances of this situation every year, taking vicinity most typically within the 19-35-one year-vintage age group. The perfect prevalence in Australia isn’t always identified.


The orchitis was first coined and described by Hippocrates in the 5th century. The term Orchitis literal meaning is ‘testicle inflammation’ which is a Greek word for ‘Testicle’.

What causes orchitis?

The major causes are bacteria and viruses.

  • The commonly available bacterial species include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. These bacteria initially cause epididymitis and finally lead to orchitis as well.
  • Sexually active men aged 19-35 years, can be infected with bacteria that are responsible for sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia.
  • If the person is affected with mumps, they may have an infection of testis by the mumps virus. Mumps virus can also cause orchitis. This happens most commonly in young boy children.
  • The common viral organisms which cause orchitis are coxsackievirus, cytomegalovirus ( the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis), echovirus, and varicella.
  • The most cases of this disorder are caused by progression and spreading of the testis diseases such as epididymitis, prostate cancer, prostate gland/urinary tract infection.

Risk factors

  • A person may be at risk if they are not being immunized against mumps
  • If people older than 45 years get frequent urinary tract infections
  • If an individual beyond 50 years have placed Foley catheter into the bladder for prolonged time
  • Genitourinary surgery (A Surgery for urinary tract)
  • Congenital urinary tract disorders
  • Having multiple sex partners
  • Sex with a partner who had Sexually transmitted disease (STD)
  • An unprotected sex and promiscuous sexual life
  • If you have a history of STD’S
  • Anal intercourse is also a major risk of infection with pathogens
  • Untreated Urethritis and prostatitis may also pose a risk
  • Bladder obstruction due to enlarged prostate and urethral abnormality


Symptoms may range from mild to severe. Inflammation may occur in one or both the testicles. The common primary symptoms are pain and swelling or the symptoms may appear more gradually. Symptoms that may include such as follows

  • Body aches
  • Pain when urinating (dysuria)
  • Testicular swelling in one or both testicles
  • Testicular redness
  • Testicular pain and tenderness, which may last for weeks
  • Fever and chills
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Malaise and fatigue
  • Bleeding in semen
  • Abnormal discharge
  • Enlarged prostate

Symptoms of orchitis

 Complications of Orchitis

Complication includes:

  • Testicular atrophy
  • Scrotal abscess (The infected tissue fills with pus)
  • Repeated epididymitis
  • Infertility

Diagnosis and test

Your doctor may start with a physical examination to check for enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area and enlarged testicles in the affected area. Your doctor may do a rectal examination to check tenderness or prostate enlargement.

Other laboratory tests and imaging tests are undertaken to evaluate other medical conditions which may present with similar symptoms:

Nuclear scan of testicles: the radioactive tracer is discharged into your blood. Then the scanner will scan the blood flow to the testicles which indicates torsion.

Ultrasound: Ultrasound imaging can rule out testicular torsions. Ultrasound with color Doppler can find the blood flow to the testicles. If the blood flow is lower than normal, then it indicates testicular torsion. If the blood flow is higher than normal then it will help to confirm the diagnosis.

Urine test: urine sample is taken and it is analyzed to find any abnormalities, appearance or content and to find which bacteria are the reason for infection.

STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection) screening: Discharge from the urethra is taken from the end of the penis. The sample is investigated in the laboratory for chlamydia and gonorrhea.

Treatment and medications

Treating bacterial orchitis

Antibiotics are required to treat bacterial orchitis. If it is caused by STI then your sexual partner also should go for diagnosis and treatment.

A patient should take the entire course of antibiotic which is prescribed by the doctor. It may take several weeks to get disappear from orchitis symptoms. Resting, supporting scrotum, ice packs and having pain medications may reduce the pain.

Antibiotics are prescribed based on the patient age and causes of the bacterial infection. Some of the common antibiotic which is used as follows:

  • Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
  • Doxycycline (Vibramycin, Doryx)
  • Azithromycin (Zithromax)
  • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

Treating viral orchitis

If the orchitis is caused by a virus then it should not be treated with antibiotics. Treatment for relieving symptoms of viral orchitis, your doctor may advise

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen (Aleve, others)
  • Bed rest and elevating your scrotum
  • Cold packs

Although viral orchitis takes several weeks for disappearing symptoms, most people with viral orchitis will feel better after 10 days of treatment.

Prevention of Orchitis

  • The most common cause of this disorder is a sexually transmitted infection. So practice safe sex by using condoms to reduce the extent of sexually transmitted diseases
  • Immunise against mumps is the most common cause of viral orchitis
  • Men’s above 50 years of age should be examined for prostate gland during their physical examination
  • Inflammation and prevention may also be prevented by reducing the use of urinary catheterization

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  1. very good information and I request help on management of premature ejaculation.

    • Anesthetic creams and sprays that contain a numbing agent, such as benzocaine, lidocaine or prilocaine, are sometimes used to treat premature ejaculation. These products are applied to the penis 10 to 15 minutes before sex to reduce sensation and help delay ejaculation. Follow some physical exercises and behavioral techniques under the guidance of a medical practitioner.

  2. very good

  3. thanks for your good disease introduction we are understanding very well

  4. It’s just great. In Africa many patients don’t consult a doctor for this, they go to traditional practitioners and find no cure. Thanks for the enlightenment.

  5. these disease conditions are very helpfull and this app also very nice thank u lot of creaters

  6. we do appreciate the service given to us continue inform us on the deadly disease

  7. Please you app is educative ,
    continue to help us wai.
    God bless you ,Paa

  8. Augustine Chukwuemeka

    Thank u very much for this vital information i just got from u now.i am suffering from orchitis infection and i want to ask can I go on one of these recomended antibiotics here?because I contacted it through STD.

    • Yes you can, but you should consult doctor before taking antibiotics. because doctor will prescribe based on your age and causes of the bacterial infection. thank you.

  9. Ndiwum solomonYour Name

    I really enjoy this article.

  10. can orchitis hills without antibiotic drugs?

  11. Ndiwum Solomon Kubuo

    I really appreciate you for taking out time to educate the public on this deadly disease.

  12. apart from antibiotics is it any drugs for orchitis?

    • Apart from antibiotics, non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs can be used for viral orchitis but not for bacterial orchitis. For bacterial orchitis, it can be cured only by antibiotics.

  13. Your Name Ibidapo S K

    Thank u for the enlightenment,
    it is true that if you are not inform you will be deformed.
    information is very vital in humans life.

  14. nice one

  15. very important!!
    viral Orchitis shouldn’t be treated with antibiotics at all……….Lets help and create awareness.
    This may help reduce bacterial resistant strains to orchitis medications.

  16. Augustine Chukwuemeka

    good morning,pls is surgery the best way to treat orchitis?pls i need ur advise.

  17. Augustine Chukwuemeka

    And if i am to go for the treatment of orchitis will my wife also go for the treatment?

  18. please will u help me also on the anal swelling and its complications,and the swelling in the scrotum.Also what causes low sperm count?

    • There is a possibility of hemorrhoid (or pile) – this is simply a swollen blood vessel – a bit like a varicose vein.
      The other possibility can be the anal abscess. Either way, it isn’t something to be ignored. Both can be easily treated, but the treatments are different.
      You need to go and be examined. consult with your GP.

  19. Naab Bewobr Bismark

    what is the term for the inflammation of penis? And what is the drugs of choice for that as well as the treatment.

    • Inflammation of the rounded head (the glans) of the penis is called balanitis. posthitis (inflammation of the foreskin) usually occur together as balanoposthitis: inflammation of both the glans and foreskin.

  20. thanks for this vital information…. really educative.
    I have been diagnosed of staphylococcus and have been treating it for well over 4 years now without success. the same symptoms of moving objects in my arms, severe waist and back pain, discharge of semen-like liquid during excretion, quick ejaculation and inability to go beyond 1 round of sex…and even in most cases, a total loss of sexual appetite due to poor erection. pls what stronger antibiotics do I take to rid my system of this.

  21. orchitis is either chronic or acute and to add to the information above this deadly disease should be treated under medical supervision because its painful.but mode of treatment is …….under antibiotics e.g cefuroxime,cefixime,and metronidazole and pain killers like acetaminophen

  22. greetings Doc. please I have been with bladder and testicles pain, I conducted several scanning and test but nothing was discovered on the result, unless toilet infection which I treated it, and despite the treatment I still feel that bladder pain. Just of recent, the pains on the bladder and testicles continues better than before. please sir, what is the solution?

  23. please doctor this week I have discovered a redish/pinkish thing on my scrotum on one of the side testicles and a feeling of scratching the part now and then but no pain at all. please which infection is this and medication.

  24. thanks for the impacted knowledge..

  25. l normally feel pain in my penis,testis ,premature ejaculation and frequent discharge.please, kindly assist me.

  26. Thanks for the enlightenment.
    A question was asked, and no solution was proffered. Is it only with antibiotics that it can be treated, or surgery can be an option?

    • If it is in severe condition, it needs surgery to cure. if it is not in severe condition, it can be treated with antibiotics.

  27. does this lead to infertility if not treated soon?

  28. love this app have Learn much from it thanks

  29. yes docter i have this disease and i hate injection so consult with me

    • Ofloxacin (Floxin),Ciprofloxacin (Cipro),rimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim DS, Septra DS) are some of the oral medicines which is used to treat orchitis. Before taking these tablets consult a doctor.

  30. Human Needs Humanity

    Appreciable application! May friend was suffering of the case ….and I prescribed the antibiotics!

  31. good morning . pls don’t stop to gives advise us because their is more people suffering different disease in the world.

  32. I am suffering from staphylococcus for years so can I go for anyone of this drug without consulting doctor sir, I don’t have email address, if you can reply me back I will be so glad thanks God bless you

  33. thanks for all ur support pls what can used to treat small penis and what course it

  34. How long does it take to be heald from orchitis and How long should I take ciprofloxatin or doxycicline.

  35. I experience this type of disease for almost 2 years now,I went to the doctor at the first time but no change,some time when i urinate the urine won’t come or either come in a drops and feel pain,some time it’s only yellow fruids comes anytime with no pain. what can I do?

    • this may be due to bacterial infection in the urinary tract or due to some other problem, so first, consult a doctor to get diagnosis of this problem.

  36. testicular itching. what remedies

  37. doc,was diagnosed as Orchitis,took medicine. Its now 2 years ,the testicular pains still continues.Ultra sound showed no problem.Have done it twice after a 5 mths interval.It is really painful.Advise.

  38. Your Name Joe David

    can one live with orchitis if no pains experienced?
    what if you have this without pains, and suddenly, pains set in? Any drugs for the pains?

  39. cure for genital warts?

    • Surgical destruction or excision has been more effective in eradicating genital warts than medical therapies, but it carries a relatively high recurrence rate.

  40. I really gain alot here & I will share the information to all my friends too

  41. I really gain alot here and I will share it to all my friends outside here

  42. there was a time if I urinate, immediately the urine finish blood will follow without any pain , please help me out ..

  43. I usually feel pains in my waist and my Panis when ever I urinate or have sex,and exajulate when ever I get close to a Lady without even insected my dick

  44. Inosculation failed me at age thirty.
    every time that l have protected sex, I check the condom to find it empty.
    I have a swollen testacle.
    please assist.

  45. plz tell who is the best result sexual timing cap or tab

  46. Syed Saleemulla hussainy (Pharmacist)

    In men sometimes when he was sleeping the semen automatically discharge give me perfect suggestions or any medicine

  47. I am 50 year’s I am suffering from enlarge of my peines. I am having Daibat

  48. what of having reddish semen or sperm isn’t also a sign

  49. I have a problem with my penis, after curing staphylococcus erus,which I got from unprotected sex,I have been having problem on my private part ,bigging of the penis and scratching on my testis,,,pls help me with some antibiotics

  50. I am 32 years old. I am suffering from sever pain in the left testicle for three years now. I have consulted many doctors as well as a lot of laboratory test but all prove negative. just recently I am experiencing inflammation in my penis too. what should I do to come out with these complications please?

  51. i have Spain in my testis.with several antibiotics. I’m still having little Spain.what shall I do

  52. I fill pain in my Panis and when I go to toilet I see something white coming from my panis. can i go and buy the four drags you listed for treatment

  53. with drugs do i go for

  54. Sibusiso Zikhali

    exactly the way i was treated. thank you. i will condomise in future.

  55. is it possible to take this drugs at this same time doxycycline and ciprofloxacine together

    • By combining doxycycline with a second drug, ciprofloxacin, a combination is normally useless. Doxycycline actually blocks the effects of ciprofloxacin, and the two drugs together are weaker than either alone. So it would be better to take a single drug at a time.

  56. I do urinate frequently, what kind of disease is that and the treatment?

  57. I really appreciate learning a lot here, i have pains on both scrotum which I went for a test and discovered I have epididymitis and hydrocele which I have been given a n antibiotic injection but I still feel pain and it also affect my sperm count to 9mil but the doctor is telling me to be patient, it may go but if I’m feeling the pain badly we can go on surgery but right now I don’t kno what to do, I was thinking of taking one of the drugs u prescribed for the epididymitis. pls give me an advic

  58. me too such sick nesses, as like nose Nik water out from my penis itself and pain during urination, how it can treatment.

    • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes, can all affect the urinary tract and lead to pain when urinating. Symptoms may vary according to the type of STI.
      Kindly contact a doctor to diagnose your problem.

  59. I’ve got chronic architis spyhilis for
    9 to 10 years, please how can I get treatment for that

  60. How to get treatment for
    this sickness for 10 to 9 years.

  61. is this orchitis a disease on it own or gotten as a result of having chlymadia or gonorrhea?

  62. Thanks for the good information. But what causes the sperms not to come out?

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