Hepatitis: Types, Causes, Treatment and Prevention

Definition

Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It’s commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue.

Timeline

8th Century:  Infectious Nature of HBV suggested

17th-19th Centuries:  Outbreaks of epidemics of jaundice in military and civilian populations during wars

1883:  Lurman reports outbreaks of serum hepatitis follwing vaccination of dockers

1908: McDonald postulates that the infectious jaundice is caused by a virus

1939-1945: WWII-A series of outbreaks after vaccination for measles and yellow fever

1947: MacCallum classifies viral hepatitis into two types-

  • Viral hepatitis A—> Infectious hepatitis
  • Viral hepatitis B—> Serum hepatitis

1965: Blumberg discovers Australia antigen (HBsAg) in aborigines and shows presence of antigen

at high frequency in patients with leukemia and children with Down’s syndrome

1970: Dane discovers the Dane particle (complete HBV particle)

1972: Discovers HBeAg

1973: Feinstone and Purcell identifies HAV

1977: Rizzetto describes delta antigen HDV

1983: Recovery of HEV

1988: Chiron group (Choo, Kuo, Houghton) closes and identifies HCV.

1995: Abbot group reports GB Virus-C (GBV-C) and Genelabs group reports in 1996 hepatitis

G virus (HGV)—GBV-C=HGV

1996: Chang’s group at NTUH reports in JAMA the successful prevention of HBV infection by

nation-wide vaccination on newborn babies launched in 1984 in Taiwan.

1997: Chang’s group at NTUH reports in NEJM a decrease in annual incidence rate of

hepatocellular carcinoma in children ascribed to nation-wide vaccination against HBV on

newborn babies launched in 1984 in Taiwan.

Epidemiology

Globally, viral It was the seventh leading cause of death in 2013, up from the 10th leading cause in 1990. Worldwide, HAV is responsible for an estimated 1.4 million infections annually.  About 2 billion people in the world have evidence of past or current HBV infection, with 240 million chronic carriers of HBsAg. HBV, along with the associated infection by the hepatitis D virus, is one of the most common pathogens afflicting humans. HBV leads to 650,000 deaths annually as a result of viral hepatitis–induced liver disease.

The worldwide annual incidence of acute HCV infection is not easily estimated, because patients are often asymptomatic. An estimated 71 million people are chronically infected with HCV worldwide.  About 55-85% of these people infected progress to chronic HCV infection, with a 15-30% risk of developing liver cirrhosis within two decades.  China, the United States, and Russia have the largest populations of anti-HCV positive injection drug users (IDUs). It is estimated that 6.4 million IDUs worldwide are positive for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) (anti-HBc), and 1.2 million are HBsAg-positive.

Types and causes

Viral infections of the liver that are classified as hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. A different virus is responsible for each type of virally transmitted hepatitis.

Hepatitis A is always an acute, short-term disease, while hepatitis B, C, and D are most likely to become ongoing and chronic. Hepatitis E is usually acute but can be particularly dangerous in pregnant women.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is caused by an infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). This type of hepatitis is most commonly transmitted by consuming food or water contaminated by feces from a person infected with hepatitis A.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is transmitted through contact with infectious body fluids, such as blood, vaginal secretions, or semen, containing the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Injection drug use, having sex with an infected partner, or sharing razors with an infected person increase your risk of getting hepatitis B.

It’s estimated by the CDC that 1.2 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide live with this chronic disease.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C comes from the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is transmitted through direct contact with infected body fluids, typically through injection drug use and sexual contact. HCV is among the most common bloodborne viral infections in the United States. Approximately 2.7 to 3.9 million Americans are currently living with a chronic form of this infection.

Hepatitis D

Also called delta hepatitis, hepatitis D is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV). HDV is contracted through direct contact with infected blood. Hepatitis D is a rare form of hepatitis that only occurs in conjunction with hepatitis B infection. The hepatitis D virus can’t multiply without the presence of hepatitis B. It’s very uncommon in the United States.

Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E is a waterborne disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis E is mainly found in areas with poor sanitation and typically results from ingesting fecal matter that contaminates the water supply. This disease is uncommon in the United States. However, cases of hepatitis E have been reported in the Middle East, Asia, Central America, and Africa, according to the CDC.

Autoimmune Hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare form of chronic hepatitis. Like other autoimmune disorders, its exact cause is unknown. Autoimmune hepatitis may develop on its own or it may be associated with other autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. In autoimmune disorders, a misdirected immune system attacks the body’s own cells and organs (in this case the liver).

Symptoms

When symptoms occur, they can include:

  • Jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and eyes)
  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Clay-colored bowel movements
  • Painful joints

Yellowing of skin and eye

Complications of hepatitis

Chronic hepatitis B or C can often lead to more serious health problems. Because the virus affects the liver, people with chronic hepatitis B or C are at risk for:

  • Chronic liver disease
  • Cirrhosis
  • Liver cancer

When your liver stops functioning normally, liver failure can occur. Complications of liver failure include:

  • Bleeding disorders
  • A buildup of fluid in your abdomen, known as ascites
  • Increased blood pressure in portal veins that enter your liver, known as portal hypertension
  • Kidney failure
  • Hepatic encephalopathy , which can involve fatigue, memory loss, and diminished mental abilities due to the buildup of toxins, like ammonia, that affect brain function
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a form of liver cancer
  • Death

People with chronic hepatitis B and C are encouraged to avoid alcohol because it can accelerate liver disease and failure. Certain supplements and medications can also affect liver function. If you have chronic hepatitis B or C, check with your doctor before taking any new medications.

Diagnosis and test

History and physical exam

To diagnose hepatitis, first your doctor will take your history to determine any risk factors you may have for infectious or noninfectious hepatitis.

During a physical examination, your doctor may press down gently on your abdomen to see if there’s pain or tenderness. Your doctor may also feel to see if your liver is enlarged. If your skin or eyes are yellow, your doctor will note this during the exam.

Liver function tests

Liver function tests use blood samples to determine how efficiently your liver works. Abnormal results of these tests may be the first indication that there is a problem, especially if you don’t show any signs on a physical exam of liver disease. High liver enzyme levels may indicate that your liver is stressed, damaged, or not functioning properly.

Other blood tests

If your liver function tests are abnormal, your doctor will likely order other blood tests to detect the source of the problem. These tests can check for the viruses that cause hepatitis. They can also be used to check for antibodies that are common in conditions like autoimmune hepatitis.

Ultrasound

An abdominal ultrasound uses ultrasound waves to create an image of the organs within your abdomen. This test allows your doctor to take a close at your liver and nearby organs. It can reveal:

  • Fluid in your abdomen
  • Liver damage or enlargement
  • Liver tumours
  • Abnormalities of your gallbladder

Sometimes the pancreas shows up on ultrasound images as well. This can be a useful test in determining the cause of your abnormal liver function.

Liver biopsy

A liver biopsy is an invasive procedure that involves your doctor taking a sample of tissue from your liver. It can be done through your skin with a needle and doesn’t require surgery. Typically, an ultrasound is used to guide your doctor when taking the biopsy sample.

This test allows your doctor to determine how infection or inflammation has affected your liver. It can also be used to sample any areas in your liver that appear abnormal.

Treatment and medications

Treatment options are determined by which type of hepatitis you have and whether the infection is acute or chronic.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A usually doesn’t require treatment because it’s a short-term illness. Bed rest may be recommended if symptoms cause a great deal of discomfort. If you experience vomiting or diarrhea , follow your doctor’s orders for hydration and nutrition.

The hepatitis A vaccine is available to prevent this infection. Most children begin vaccination between ages 12 and 18 months. It’s a series of two vaccines. Vaccination for hepatitis A is also available for adults and can be combined with the hepatitis B vaccine.

Hepatitis B

Acute hepatitis B doesn’t require specific treatment.

Chronic hepatitis B is treated with antiviral medications. This form of treatment can be costly because it must be continued for several months or years. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B also requires regular medical evaluations and monitoring to determine if the virus is responding to treatment.

Hepatitis B can be prevented with vaccination. The CDC recommends hepatitis B vaccinations for all newborns. The series of three vaccines is typically completed over the first six months of childhood. The vaccine is also recommended for all healthcare and medical personnel.

Hepatitis C

Antiviral medications are used to treat both acute and chronic forms of hepatitis C. People who develop chronic hepatitis C are typically treated with a combination of antiviral drug therapies. They may also need further testing to determine the best form of treatment.

People who develop cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) or liver disease as a result of chronic hepatitis C may be candidates for a liver transplant .

Currently, there is no vaccination for hepatitis C.

Hepatitis D

No antiviral medications exist for the treatment of hepatitis D at this time. According to a 2013 study , a drug called alpha interferon can be used to treat hepatitis D, but it only shows improvement in about 25 to 30 percent of people.

Hepatitis D can be prevented by getting the vaccination for hepatitis B, as infection with hepatitis B is necessary for hepatitis D to develop.

Hepatitis E

Currently, no specific medical therapies are available to treat hepatitis E. Because the infection is often acute, it typically resolves on its own. People with this type of infection are often advised to get adequate rest, drink plenty of fluids, get enough nutrients, and avoid alcohol. However, pregnant women who develop this infection require close monitoring and care.

Autoimmune hepatitis

  • Corticosteroids, like prednisone or budesonide, are extremely important in the early treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. They’re effective in about 80 percent of people with this condition.
  • Azothioprine ( Imuran ), a drug that suppresses the immune system, is often included in treatment. It can be used with or without steroids.
  • Other immune suppressing drugs like mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (Prograf) and cyclosporine (Neoral) can also be used as alternatives to azathioprine for treatment.

Prevention

There are many steps you can take to reduce the risk of viral hepatitis:

  • Consider getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B if you weren’t vaccinated as a child. This is the number one way to prevent these illnesses.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water after using the bathroom or changing a baby’s diaper and before handling food.
  • When traveling in developing countries, avoid unpeeled or raw foods. Drink only bottled, boiled or chemically treated water.
  • Practice safe sex. Hepatitis B is about 50–100 times more transmissible during sex than HIV. Condoms and other barrier methods greatly reduce the risk.
  • Never share syringes, shaving razors, toothbrushes or tattooing or piercing supplies.
  • Wear gloves when performing first aid.
  • Disinfect blood spills (including dried ones) with diluted bleach and wear gloves during clean-up.
  • Follow all occupational safety precautions in your workplace.
  • If you are pregnant, seek early and regular prenatal care.

To reduce the risk of non-viral hepatitis, avoid excessive alcohol consumption and consult with a healthcare professional about medications and supplements.

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151 comments

  1. the app is wonderful……..,….

  2. the app is very and important

  3. YoNgangEric Nsohur Name

    It’s fantastic getting explanation of the various hepatitis, it’s really going to help me and the rest of the people. Thanks very much sir,good bless you.

  4. YoNgangEric Nsohur Name

    It’s helpful for me and the rest of the people.

  5. Muhammad Nadeem Ahmed

    Nice work for human being.
    ALLAH BLESS U.

  6. Muhammad Nadeem Ahmed

    Nice work for human being.

  7. Your NameAsamoah Richmond

    I Like it the way it teaches how it comes , cure and preventions

  8. Well Explained And Very Helpful Especially Where There Is No Doctor

  9. can you please simplify some of the terms and show more pics

  10. thanks, that is nice but what type of drug a person that suffering from hepatitis B can take to treat him self

    • The most common are anti-viral medications taken as tablets each day for a year or longer such as ENTECAVIR (BARACLUDE®) , TENOFOVIR (VIREAD®),LAMIVUDINE (ZEFFIX®) and ADEFOVIR (HEPSERA®). but consult doctor before taking those drugs.

  11. if u have hepatitis b can eat milk

  12. I was tested hepatitis B Positive,for how long will it be4 getting into the liver,besides what kind of treatment should I get and to prevent from damaging my liver.
    thanks.

    • Its is based on the severity of the disease. If it is chronic infection it will affect the liver as early. Its better to consult doctor to get treatment for hep B.

  13. I was tested Hb positive.the lab test showed 12 counts and that the cut off value is one.my doctor advice me to perform the test in another laboratory
    1. is my infection serious
    2. if am infected, how long will it take for treatment

  14. Everyone loves what you dudes are now up to. This sort of great work and exposure! Keep up the very good work guys, I’ve included you blogroll.

  15. I have got HCV Positive, how can I save my life. please advise.

  16. pls. wanted to know that hepatitis B can be cure from human body? Because I’m a positive for that

    • A vaccine can prevent hepatitis B, but there’s no cure if you have it. Chronic hepatitis B is not curable, but it is treatable. The goal of therapy is to reduce the risk of complications

  17. Your Name Philip

    my another question to you pls. as im hepatitis B positive person i can use any kind of paracetamol drug and the soft drink like coca cola?

    • Paracetamol was taken directly after vaccination to prevent fever and pain after vaccination. mostly avoid coca cola.

  18. I’m having hepatitis b and now I’m produced flagship, abdominal pain, heart pain.

  19. You’re totally correct, I’d love to know new information on this subject! I am as well fascinated by aadhar card search since I consider it’s quite unique these days. Keep up the good work!

  20. I was diagnosed of hbs since 2009, have done LFT d result was okay. I repeated the test but still positive. I took livolin, till now it’s still positive, later doctor said it’s just a trace of it and I don’t understand.
    secondly, can I donate blood? thanks.

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  24. The apps is very good,
    Thanks for this information’s

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  26. everything had started on me around 2008, I was at hospital to donate a blood to someone an they told me that I’m a hepatitis B positive but since from then up to now I did not use any medicine
    from hospital but one of the herbalist at our area gave me a medicine to use, so now I did not feel any bad thing in my body. so my question is that: ( what must I do again?…. is it fine or must I do something else again?. Thanks

  27. can livolin treat hepatitis b bcos I take it all d time. should I stop it or continue to be taking it. pls advice me

  28. Thanks very much

  29. I have not checked in here for some time because I thought it was getting boring, but the last few posts are great quality so I guess I’ll add you back to my daily bloglist. You deserve it my friend 🙂

  30. wht is the life span of ppl tht ve liver enlarge n nt yet ving any sign for them but only detect tht Liver enlarge. wht can person take to reduce d liver or to maintain d little large now. Also thanx for d enlightment tht we received n gain.

    • liver enlargement is due to some diseases that affect liver.based on the cause of enlargement the life expectancy will vary. for the liver cancer, average patient may survive for 6 months and for Some people with liver cirrhosis tend to fall gravely sick within 3 to 5 years.

  31. You are definitely right, I’d really like to find out a lot more on that subject! I’m as well interested in upvc front doors since I consider it is really quite trendy right now. Great!

  32. am a lab technician and also hep b positive and my envelope antigen is positive as well.that means the virus is replicating but my question is the lady am staying with have not been infected for the past years and she is not the only person I have stayed with. but all of them are still negative. so I want to ask what is my status now. please I need your answer

    • May be they have acute Hep B. Your ladies are very fortunate, they may have inactive hepatitis B, which is causing no liver damage. their immune system is working well to keep the virus at undetectable levels. They require no treatment at all, they should just simply get monitored regularly.
      Because their infection has been “inactive” for so long, they may eventually clear the infection and test negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) one day.

  33. please can hep b leads to you to have hep c as well

  34. am a lab technician and also a hep b positive my envelope antigen is positive that means am replicating but the woman am staying with is still negative not her alone those I have stayed with before are all negative. so my question is what the state am I inn right now.

  35. Pls doc, just about 3 days ago, I have have been diagnosed with hb positive and I was told mine is a mild hb. and also did an hb liver test. pls is is too serious? but I have been given some drugs. how serious is mine. actually after the test, it has not affected my liver but is positive. what should I do?

    • Dont worry, follow the drugs and treatment properly which is given by a physician and have good diet food based on hepatitis disease.

  36. Can Hepatitis B Treat Naturally

    • Yes, it can be treated naturally to manage the symptoms. Eat a Healthy & Well Balanced Diet, Avoid Inflammatory Foods and Drinks and Stay Hydrated.

  37. wonderful app, it will help many persons to prevent this chronic disease

  38. A person that infected with the hepatitis B+positive,which drugs can be use for the treatment, please prescribed the medicine for me please.

    • First, you should get the hepatitis B vaccine if you never received it. if you are infected with acute hepatitis B you no need treatment it will cure on its own. in severe cases, antiviral drugs are used such as entecavir (Baraclude), tenofovir (Viread), lamivudine (Epivir), adefovir (Hepsera) and telbivudine (Tyzeka).

  39. if I took this infection B or C
    when the first season can I understand his effect and illnes ?
    how many long can it take?

  40. I was diagnose of hpt B but my doctor say I don’t need any drug, I should drink plenty fluid my immune system will fight the disease and flush it from my system is that true sir ?

  41. what are the drugs used in the treatment of hepatitis B

    • Chronic hepatitis B is treated with antiviral medications such as entecavir (Baraclude), tenofovir (Viread), lamivudine (Epivir), adefovir (Hepsera) and telbivudine (Tyzeka).

  42. what are the natural ways or home remedies for treating hepatitis B

    • Eat a raw vegetable and fruit diet for two to four weeks. Start this diet with a cleansing fast. Especially when symptoms are acute, take care to replace fluids by drinking vegetable broth, diluted vegetable juices, and herbal teas.
      Herbs beneficial for hepatitis include black radish, green tea, red clover, and yellow dock.

  43. Am HP positive what kind of medicine will u prescribe for me.

  44. Your Shafau Hamadu

    thanks
    is there any treatment for hepatitis B

    • First, you should get the hepatitis B vaccine if you never received it. if you are infected with acute hepatitis B you no need treatment it will cure on its own. in severe cases, antiviral drugs are used such as entecavir (Baraclude), tenofovir (Viread), lamivudine (Epivir), adefovir (Hepsera) and telbivudine (Tyzeka).

  45. my son 12yers old test hepatitis b pls doctor what course it for him ad what are the drugs to use for him.

  46. my name is NASIR am living with hb in me and I want have wife and kids is it possible with that please.

  47. A good job well done! sir I want to travel but am Hb positive, what do I do to test Negative? it’s a stupid question but please I will like to get an answer

  48. what is the average age for hepatitis b patient

    • hepatitis B can be successfully managed if you take good care of your health and your liver. You should expect to live a long, full life.

  49. if a person is tested hepatitis b and got positive results, does it mean if he is tested HIV will be positive?

  50. I’m having hepatitis b and I took in some herbal medicine and they said it will cure is that true.

  51. plz doc how will I know if is acute or chronic

    • symptoms of acute hepatitis B can include:
      Abdominal pain, especially around the liver.
      Dark urine and/or pale stool.
      Feeling tired and rundown (fatigue)
      Fever.
      Joint and/or muscle pain.
      Loss of appetite.
      Nausea.
      Vomiting.
      Symptoms of chronic hepatitis.
      fatigue or malaise
      web of swollen blood vessels in the skin or yellow skin and eyes
      fluid in the abdomen

  52. any specific medicine to cure it

  53. I was tested HBSag+ (reactive any way) but what i always feel is like pins in my belly… that cant be pinworm i guess? coz its not among all the symptoms i have come across….i line with HB+

  54. Dear Dr. I tested 3 times with hepatitis b positive but every time, results were showing -moderate, and my wife gave birth 2 months ago but through all her pregnancy period , results were negative. Dr. put in on livolin forte for the first month and state remained moderate. A month ago. Dr asked retest in another laboratory and take to him the results for further guidance.What should I do

  55. What is the average life expectancy for a 30yr old hepatitis b patient

  56. Dr. it’s Frank again , I have tested twice in two different hospitals and the results are hb positive but moderate.Also I did the LFTs but the results showed that are normal. The Dr has asked to go another laboratory to test again. Am seeking for lead. Thanks

  57. Can we get cued on hepatitis b. Me my liver is functioning normal

  58. is the drugs expensive

  59. Your NameUsman Yusuf

    I love the ways the explanation made but how long the affected person can managed his life again

  60. Pauline whekwete

    i have been living with hep b for the past 4 years and have not done any tests and I now feel sick everyday is it too late for me to get treatment now

  61. Your Name Nyambx

    okay am a nurse my dad died two years ago because of hepatitis b …later my mum was tested and it turned negative…after that our family received three vaccine which I think should last for five years…can we trust that this virus will never occur again to any of my family members

  62. Great job here…
    Please, what’s the solution for a person that’s tested positive for hepatitis B surface antigens (HbSAg – positive)?

    • Not everyone who tests HBsAg positive needs treatment. Only if the virus persists in the body for more than 6 months ( Chronic Hepatitis B infection) then treatment may be needed in the presence of active disease It is detected by HBV DNA positivity and rising viral levels. To know whether you need treatment please see a gastroenterologist.

  63. is there any food that can be taken regularly to prevent infection.

    • If you have hepatitis, you usually don’t need a special diet. Just trying to eat healthily and not being overweight and avoid alcohol is all that is needed.

  64. ARE THERE ANY NATURAL HERBS THAT CAN HEAL YOU FROM HEPATIC C?

    • There are claims of milk thistle acting as a liver calming agent. It acts as a way of pulling toxins from the liver according to some. There are other herbs that can support liver health. None of these herbs can ever totally get rid of the virus. Once you have a long-term battle with Hep C, you are going to need medication to help get rid of it.

  65. I have been tested HB + and my doctor say I should eat anything I like , but my urin is dark yellow , and he say I will treated malaria that is all

  66. PrinceYour Name

    doctor, please sometimes ago, I was tested positive for hepB. I for 2 years now haven’t taken any drug on it. Last year I went for test and I was told I’m in inactive stage. My girlfriend whom we had unprotected sex did test and didn’t have hepb . please do you think one who is an inactive hepb carrier can not transmit the diseases?

  67. Okoro John Friday Munachimso

    Nice app, very informative and well detailed.

  68. Wat is the cure for hep.C.

    • These drugs have much better success rates than older treatments. Some of the most recommended treatments for different genotypes of hepatitis C include:

      ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (Harvoni)
      elbasvir-grazoprevir (Zepatier)
      ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir (Technivie)
      ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir and dasabuvir (Viekira Pak)
      daclatasvir-sofosbuvir (Darvoni or Sovodak)
      glecaprevir-pibrentasvir (Mavyret)

  69. I have hepatitis b but the doctor said its dormant can I still get medication though its not active

  70. I have hepatitis what should I do

  71. treatment for hepatitis B

    • An injection of immunoglobulin (an antibody) given within 12 hours of exposure to the virus may help protect you from getting sick with hepatitis B. Because this treatment only provides short-term protection, you also should get the hepatitis B vaccine at the same time, if you never received it.

  72. can the hepatitis go away over time

  73. if you are in entacavir treatment of hepatitis B what are the dos and don’t help please

  74. can they vaccinate me even though the hepatitis B is dormant?

  75. any treatment for hepatitis B?

    • Baraclude (entecavir)
      Intron A (interferon alfa-2b) for children
      Pegasys (peginterferon alfa-2a) for adults
      Vemlidy (tenofovir alafenamide)
      Viread (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate)

  76. Do you get vaccine wen the hepatitis b is dormant or inactive?

  77. I was tested hp positive what medicine can i take. I wad just given livolin in yhe first month of the tests.

  78. i have tested again after 6 months for hepatits b and LFTS in another improved laboratory as requested by my Dr. and found still my liver operates normal though the Dr. has put me again on livolin for 2 months and is getting some anti viral drugs to commence taking.Am i on the right track?.Thanks

  79. Really educating….. I love his apps.

  80. Chikuta Patrick

    This app is really helpful.

  81. sir,l need to know, l have founded with hepatitis bt they didn’t tell me the type, they do give me ARV.nw wht type of hepatitis l have and am l going to be fine with this ARV?l need answers please sir

  82. Kulu Joseph Fuma

    Am +ve with Hpt B and my liver is normal (10.53cm MCL). But there is time I went for acheck up and my liver was (11.56cm) so is normal compared with the results?

  83. hi , doctor,I have hBV with viral load of1350000iu/more,all my other tsts , sonography of abdomen,liver,bladder etc are good.my LFT was. 29 two years before,now LFT is 27 ,I have been taking entcavvir sice last one year,my family screening test was clear especially my wsife had not symptoms. thanks. should I continue medication further?I am feeling well than before medication.my weight has increased , before medication I was under weight

  84. I was tested positive for hepatitis b in 2012, I was told to use livolin forte, lamivudine, I use it for about 2year before I stop because I can’t afford buying it again, I fell sick about 2week again and I was told to repeat d test, and it was still positive, I don’t know if I should continue drugs again.

  85. thanks for the explanation. appreciate.

  86. I was tested Hp C+tv in 2009, till now I haven’t taken any medication and the medicine can b found where for this case my country Uganda in East Africa? or am late for medication? And also I have slept with ladies using unprotected sex and some of them are HIV positive but I can’t get I HIV is it cos I have hepatitis C? thanks

  87. this app is so interesting

  88. Hi, please my husband have hepatitis B and I am self immune, can I get infected?

  89. please Dr,any medicine for hept B patient

    • Several antiviral medications — including entecavir (Baraclude), tenofovir (Viread), lamivudine (Epivir), adefovir (Hepsera) and telbivudine (Tyzeka) — can help fight the virus and slow its ability to damage your liver. These drugs are taken by mouth. Talk to your doctor about which medication might be right for you.

  90. please does it mean when your infection is in the acute stage you wouldn’t need any treatment? if yes then won’t the virus multiply.

  91. Maame Gyamfuaa Adomako

    pls am hapithes B positive nd i went to a doctor nd he put me on medication 6 month. after I went bck n check again he said ma liver normal, so do I ve chance to become negative?

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