Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)- Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment


The pelvic inflammatory disease is the inflammation of female reproductive organs such as the uterus, ovaries, cervix, endometrium, and the fallopian tubes, due to the infection of sexually transmitted bacteria. Sometimes it also caused by the normal bacteria present in the vagina.  This bacterium enters via the vagina and reaches to the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovaries. If PID is not treated for long-term, then it can lead to the formation of scars with fibrous band growth between the surrounding organs and tissues.



PID is often associated with the infection of microorganisms which starts from the cervix or vagina to the endometrium, then to the fallopian tubes and later into the contiguous structure called ovaries.

The causative agents that are most responsible for infection of reproductive organs are as follows.

  • Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  • Polymicrobial infections also occur in rare cases.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces species are very less common causative bacteria in PID.

Causes of PID

  • The root causes of PID are mostly by sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia.
  • It can also be transmitted from the non-sexually transmitted infections such as bacterial vaginosis.
  • PID can also occur after the rupture of an appendix.
  • In some cases ruptured bowel infections can also cause PID.
  • Unprotected sex can cause PID very easily.
  • It can also result from a termination of pregnancy or childbirth.
  • Having past history of PID and STD.

Risk factors of pelvic inflammatory disease

  • Childbirth, abortion or miscarriage can make the vaginal mouth unclosed. This makes the high possibility of bacteria to enter into the reproductive organs.
  • An intrauterine device (IUD): It is a type of birth control placed into the uterus, which increases the risk of developing PID.
  • An endometrial biopsy also increases the risk of PID due to some bacterial infections during the biopsy.
  • Appendicitis: It slightly increases the risk because the infection from appendices is spread over the pelvic regions.
  • Douching: Douching is washing or cleaning out the vagina with water or other mixtures of fluids. Frequent douching may be at risk for developing PID.
  • Women who are having several sexual partners.
  • People who do not use barrier contraceptives
  • Women who are under age of 25years and sexually active.

Incidence of PID

  • It is much difficult to assess the exact incidence of PID affected women by the different specialist.
  • Total measures of 10-12 cases per 1000 women of reproductive age were often affected.
  • PID was responsible for one in 60 general practitioner consultations by women under the age of 45 years.
  • About 10 to 15 percent of women with chlamydia and gonorrhea develop PID as the secondary infection.
  • In the United States, approx. 1 million females are afflicted with PID per year, and nearly 275,000 of them are thought to be hospitalized.


Many women’s doesn’t have any signs and symptoms. When the condition becomes mild to serious, symptoms may arise include:

  • Pain in the abdomen is the most common symptoms
  • Pain during sex
  • Irregular and long-lasting periods
  • Unusual discharge with bad odor from Virgina
  • Fell very tired
  • Pain when you pee or hard time to go
  • Fever (temperature 38° C [100.4° F] or higher)  or chills
  • Fainting and vomiting
  • Often urination

Complications of pelvic inflammatory disease

PID sometimes leads to long-term problems when it is not treated in the early stage.

  • Abscess in fallopian tubes and ovaries
  • Long-term pain in pelvic and around the abdomen
  • Ectopic pregnancy which means the fertilized egg implants itself outside the womb, mostly in one of the fallopian tube
  • Infertility
  • Recurrent pelvic inflammatory disorder

Diagnosis and test

To diagnose PID doctors usually, do a physical examination to check the signs and symptoms of the PID.

If you have abdominal pain, then your doctor may check for:

  • Unusual discharge from Virgina
  • Abscess or pus in the cervix, near ovaries or fallopian tubes
  • Pain or tenderness in your reproductive organs

Tests to diagnose PID include:

  • Test for sexually transmitting infection, especially for gonorrhea and chlamydia
  • Imaging test or ultrasound test to see the internal organs for the signs of PID
  • Urinary tract infection test and test for other conditions that cause PID

Treatment and medications

Treatment for PID includes:

Antibiotics: your doctor may prescribe antibiotics by the combination of two antibiotics. After the laboratory tests, your doctor may prefer medicines based on your severity of the infection. Antibiotic treatment prevents serious complications buy doesn’t give any damage. Antibiotics should be chosen against chlamydia and gonorrhea which are the most common bacterial infection through STI.

Some of the antibiotic which is commonly prescribed by doctors such as

  • Ofloxacin
  • Metronidazole
  • Ceftriaxone
  • Doxycycline

Inform your doctor if you’re pregnant because some antibiotic should be avoided during pregnancy period.

Treatment for your partner: To prevent sexually transmitted infections, your partner should be tested and treated before having sex.

Temporary abstinence: Avoid sex intercourse until treatment gets to finish and tests indicate the infection has cleared.

Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease

Getting prompt treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. The first prevention step is by practicing safe sex.

  • You can reduce your PID by having a sexual relationship with only one person. It is called monogamous
  • Use condom while having sex
  • Get tested for STI before get started into your sex
  • The only way to prevent PID is not to have sex

You can reduce your risk by following way:

  • Get regular check for STI tests
  • Women with multiple sexual partners should be screened
  • Sexually active women age 24 or younger, should get screened for chlamydia and gonorrhea
  • If you are a new couple, get tested before starting to have sex



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  1. Can we take penicillin injection

    • penicillin is the effect to cure PID because it can kill bacteria and clear inflammation. However, patients take penicillin only under doctors’ guidance.

  2. My Name Is Dogoli Elizabeth

    Good afternoon,I love the program .now my question is,
    can one start the treatment by taking in some of the medicine prescribed since you are not sure about it?or better to go in for checkup instead.

  3. Pls can u prescribe drug that I could take for treatment of PID which has been there for a long period of time

    • doxycycline, Azithromycin Dose Pack, metronidazole, and Vibramycin are some of the drugs used to treat PID. but consult a doctor once before taking drugs.

  4. Your Regina Uchendu

    if your in Nigeria what are the names of drugs you will use for the disease you mentioned

  5. Patrick G.K.Ameworlor

    can I used the herbal remedies for the treatment

  6. If the discharge is due to Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD), then it is difficult to get pregnant.

  7. if the PID doesn’t go away with medication, then the next step is marsupialization… I.e. surgery

  8. if an unmarried girl have a same problem what v have to prescribe her.

  9. This are the drugs u are going to use for the treatment of PID
    Augmenting tablet 625mg
    Metronidazone tab. 400mg
    Unitrim tab.
    Vitamin C White tablet
    ferrodan capsule
    Paracalp tablet

    U can this number 2348114908109 for how to use those drug

  10. am man with 5month gonorria and I have took a lot of medication but still yet the purs is still coming out. pls what should I do.

  11. please, can I use the following drugs at same time, Ofloxain, metronidazole, ceftriaxone and doxycycline for PID.

  12. Am facing similar problem like what u speaking, at times my period last for 2 weeks or less then, is even giving me problem with concieving.
    during bed time at times I
    mess up the bed. So terrible please help me out am suffering. When I visit the hospital after treatment no inproftment at all maybe stop for a day or two n then continue.

  13. is it only with females?
    if aman also feels similar pain what then do we say?

    • Men cannot develop PID, and it is not contagious (however, men can carry the bacteria that was the initial cause of PID).

  14. please I have pelvic infection and it cause burning sensation? and pain around the body?

  15. I am pregnant and have symptoms for PID. what should I do as treatment?

  16. Hadiza Usman Mohammed

    my period is irregular since and now am married last year but I don’t get pregnant what I may going to do pls

  17. Your Name Muhammad

    I married my wife last four years, she don’t have this problem before, but now there is small White discharge, pls can I started given her antibiotics?

  18. what are the antibiotics that needs to be avoided during pregnancy?

    • Clarithromycin, Sulfonamides, Aminoglycosides, Fluroquinolones, Metronidazole, Tetracyclines, Ribavirin, Griseofulvin, Chloramphenicol

  19. We have several cases on this infection and we love to educate people on this, good to create the awareness on this infection. ladies who also use some liquid products on vagina should also stop. In addition don’t use your hand too much on the private part it’s also call for this STI.

  20. I’m have some signs like that and I went to hospital the doctor run a test on me and he said i am having unrinary track effection he gave this drugs: cefuroxime axetil tablets 250mg with amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate tablets 625mg but I am still feeling the pain what should I do please I need help.

  21. my wife get PID how are we going to treat it. she been miscourage

  22. Muhammad Sani salisu

    how to cure gonoria

  23. wich test to do in a p I d

    • Imaging test or ultrasound test to see the internal organs for the signs of PID.
      If you have abdominal pain, then your doctor may check for:
      -Unusual discharge from Virgina
      -Abscess or pus in the cervix, near ovaries or fallopian tubes
      -Pain or tenderness in your reproductive organs

  24. I’m having a constant discharge & it smells. it itches me also. is this a systom of PID? what should I do?

  25. Your Name Dr A O Amusan

    PID is one disease that proved very difficult to treat in my 30 years of medical practice. Despite the availability of many potent anti microbial drugs, difficulties in identifying all sexual contacts of patients and getting them all treated pose the greatest challenge to treatment success.

  26. Francisca Aigbudu

    hello I took three month family planning injection and since five years now I have been battling wit child bearing

  27. Thank u for knowledge given. am a Herbalist ad ave helped many ,combination of drug ad herbs powerful especially for group ( o).

  28. Hon. Hillary Akabuilo

    What a very important and wonder scheme for healing.

  29. I’m pregnant and is it advisable to use erythromycin ?

  30. my wife got pregnant for two times.but I gave her pills both the times because we didn’t want baby that time.
    will she get pregnant again? please help. now we want Baby.

  31. am a girl of 25 and am having the same problem with the pid what should i do my boyfriend is living me pls help me

    • please follow the instruction which we have given in the post. if it is much serious then u must consult a doctor to get the cure.

  32. Hv being using all dis antibiotics u wrote here several times but .hv not get pregnant what am I going to do now

  33. I have a friend she is complaining that her menstrual cycle is not always in order and the first day of her menses it will come out as if is dirty the blood is not always pure and she do feel some movement all over the body what could that be

  34. I’ve treated this before but I still have some pains

  35. pls can you describe drugs for yeast infection

  36. pls can ferrous makes my period black

    • You may have older bits of uterine lining and blood that are just now making their way out of your body. But don’t panic: This is normal. “We’re not sure why this happens in all cases, but sometimes the blood is sitting around for a while and comes out particularly slowly,” Dweck says. “It has a lot of time to oxidize, which is why it can look brown or almost black.”

  37. can STD cause tube blockage


    Ensure proper hygiene.
    Ensure your partner is also treated

  39. I have been feeling tired, feverish, pain and tenderness in both ovaries. now this morning I feel like throwing up. my eye is turning me too and I think this pid is responsible. I’m so scared bcos I just married last year. pls I need serious help. I don’t know any gynecologist, I went to a random private hospital and the doctor sai
    d I should keep one hundred thousand down for tests and treatment, I don’t have the money pls, I need help and I want to concieve please I’m in tears.

  40. Nice one on Pid . i have treated it but not sure it’s gone. please what do l do? I find it difficult taking in. even after meting my hubby during ovulation yet l still see my period.

  41. Your NameDorothy

    High Doctor,
    I nd these same symptoms, and I have tried every medication. It started while I was giving birth to my only baby,I even went for a surgery after so many years of medication,but still I have not recovered, what might be the problem? A certain gynecologist told me I have an hormone imbalance,what medication should you prescribe.

  42. how do I use doxycycline ?

    • Doxycycline is usually taken once or twice a day. Drink a full glass of water with each dose. If your stomach becomes upset when you take doxycycline, you may take it with food or milk. However, taking doxycycline with milk or food may decrease the amount of medication absorbed from your stomach

  43. I feel hot when I pis and body parts are painting.

  44. l have been feeling heat in my stomach for about three years now and I have gone for check up,but still no solution, and is making it impossible for me to take in,what else should l do?

  45. please I need the tablets and injections thanks

  46. pls I was diagnose wid PID and according to a scan ,it said there is a scanty fluid in my pouch of doglas but after treatment ,I did another scan n now it said massive fluid found what should I do

  47. please doctor, natural treatment like what,

  48. Pls kindly help me out. i have treated this pid, using antibiotics and injection but not sure maybe am Totally am feeling some hot sensation in vaginal.hope it not pid symptoms

  49. PID IS disturbing me some years till now, I use several drugs is getting worst. am a fat women now I become slim. please what am I going to do

  50. pls what drug can I use for PID

  51. I love this program so .much. I have been having disorder discharged and pains, itches and frequently urnationn for over a year now. I went for check up and the doctor said is urine track infection. I have taken the proscribed drug’s but there’s no change. What should I do.

  52. Stephen Nana Yaw Owusu Sarfo

    please can PID cause infertility

  53. I do having pain during sex

  54. hlo sir/mam please add a very common problem..nd that is . inflammatory bowel diseases (I.B.D)..

  55. l have been treating pid for some time now without any result and my monthly period have stop pls what causes it

  56. Pharm Ezekiel OJO

    I just download this apps and really enjoying it. please I want a distinct different between vagina candidiasis and PID

  57. I went to the hospital the doctor diagnosed me with pid and I’ve never had sex with anybody so how it is please ?

  58. I agreed with this site that’s why I’m using it

  59. Babalola Tawakalit

    I have do different test, scan,hsg,the doctor explain to me that my ovaries and womb are in good terms even the uterus but there is one lumb in my falobian tube that can cause me to have pregnant outside womb Pls which drug can I use to that

  60. pls I already have ectopic pregnancy and I had d surgery 5month ago after DAT d doctor prescribed argumentine for a month and ciprotab for a month also ,can I still get pregnant? I don’t want to have ectopic again what can I do pls

  61. Your Name Wulu Justine Eseke

    Hi Dr I have been feeling this paii at my right abdomen for long, i don’t if i have PID and also to take inn is difficult.please I need your help on what to do bye.

  62. Between orthodox medicine and herbs which one preferred to use for quick cure on PID

  63. is (PlD)use to cause big stomach, my stomach is like am pregnant and am not pregnant. wat cause it?

  64. I have PlD my stomach is big wat cause it?

  65. Am in the same problem, have married since 2016 no child, and me and my husband as go for test and get treated but no way and is up to wen am have sex the white thing will come out with my husband thing and is about to broken my home, and we have be treated main way but no way out pls sir. what can I do again to have children in the land of living pls save my home for God sake thanks

  66. pls I need a help discharge as been coming out of my private part what kind of drug’s should I use to stop it and it has odor

  67. pls i need a help that will stop my discharge

  68. Bright Masumba

    this is good to learn

  69. what is drug to use for treatment of gonorrhoea concerning men,eighter long term infection or long term.

  70. please can men suffer PID. or is only for women

  71. please is PID for women only? can men suffer PID.

  72. I have been having a very painful period. I have been treating infection. could this be PID

  73. also having irregular periods and can’t track my ovulation

  74. Adelani Oluwabunmi

    Gud pm ,pls I hv did PID infection I went to d hospital some antibiotics was recommended I used dem,yet am still unable to get pregnant, what should I do? TNKZ

  75. Rose Kyerematemaa

    can I get help here….am having severe pelvic pain and vagina itching

  76. please I have pid, severe pelvic pain, vagina itching and discharge, I have been using medicine but still I no see any changes…in fact am scared of not getting pregnant one day… please any help??

  77. Can I ask what’s the cause of miscarriages, I’ve been getting pregnant for 6 times, but each & every time when I get to 5 months of pregnancy always have a miscarriage, so what can be the problem & how should I treat the problem cause,

  78. Dr. Ayomide Sheyifunmi

    I’m a Gynecologist… I Base in Lagos…. You easily contact me on 09021292820 for more enquiry…. Thanks!

  79. pls which drug can I use? spam doesn’t stay in my virginal.. it actually do flush out and with this am unable to get pregnant.. pls help me out..

  80. PLs Wat drugs can I used and how do I use it

  81. thanks will be waiting for reply thanks,,, it’s urgent

  82. ples if I may ask, the antibiotics drugs, does it treat PID or reduce the pain ? coz I don’t see anything wen using it. tnx

  83. please Dr. Ayomide Sheyifunni your line is incorrect is not going true
    kindly give us now number

  84. a patient with STI and still has pid infection which medicine she may use to treat her promblem?

  85. Olukanni Jeremiah Tolulope

    can a man be infected with pic? and what are the signs and symptoms if a man is affected?

    • If you are sexually active, your partner should also get treated for PID. Men may be silent carriers of bacteria that cause pelvic inflammatory disease. Your infection can recur if your partner doesn’t receive treatment.

  86. All this symptoms you write here are doing me… My question is can I use this drugs that you prescribed…? Bcoz have treated it several times but still the same and my husband to be like sex nd he has tried to help me treat it many times… So please help me

  87. Let me know if I can use those drugs ? u prescribed bcoz have took many injections ?

  88. I hv to de hospital to do HSG test and it says my fallopian tubes are blocked, what can I do to get pregnant?

    • Surgery aims to open the fallopian tube using one of the following methods:
      removing scar tissue
      making a new opening on the outside of the fallopian tube
      opening the fallopian tube from the inside
      It can be carried out by the procedure using keyhole surgery.
      Consult a doctor regarding this.

  89. can it causes rashes too

  90. when you have the PID disease is anywhy can infect unborn child?

  91. Godwin Idigbakpor

    please am having trouble finding how to get rid off this low sperm count and watering sperm. I need solution thanks

  92. after treating 5yrs pid can she get pregnant?

  93. I usually have abdorminal pain after sex….and this week I discovered a very very dark blood coming out and after that there were clots

  94. am expectant but after urinalysis test my urine was said to contain 15-18pus cells and given medication then told it has been treated. but for now still 7 months expectant but again having vaginal discharge,sometimes itchy,then burning sensation sometimes,feel tired sometimes could it be pid??

  95. Your Name Ngozi

    which test someone can run before taking the PID drugs

  96. Anifowose Damilola

    can i treat pid wit procaine powder with gent

  97. what home remedy is useful for PID treatment? I’ve tried to pass through all the texts but I couldn’t find it. please help me

    • Rest in bed. You might need to stay in bed for several days if you have a serious infection.
      Drink lots of water, and eat healthy foods.
      Don’t douche or use tampons.
      If you’re in pain, you can take aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil), acetaminophen (Tylenol), or naproxen (Aleve).

  98. sorry doctor! can you please tell me what home remedy can cure PID completely?

  99. I had symptoms like am pregnant because am not been seen my period for 4month and I went to hospital and after checkup he told me am not pregnant. doctor ask me to go for scan and results says Is P.I.D .but he said uterus appear normal in dimension. empty cavity and anteverted in position with normal endometrial stipe and normal mycmetnal echopatternm normal bilateral ovarie obvious adneval mass seen. POD is noted of free fluid. urinary bladder is normally distended with normal wall

  100. Doctor please can I get pregnant?because I need baby

  101. doctor please can I get pregnant? because I need baby please

  102. sir we abortion 1time. now we plan to baby not success we also treatment & use medicine. test report also normal.

  103. please which drugs can i take to cure pid that has stayed for four years and above

  104. Shuaib rabiat teni

    Pls have frequency of boil in d private part is cause of wht and wht can one use for it as well as how to prevent it

  105. Pls ma wat type of drugs can I use for PID

  106. how can we get a gynecologist?am from Lagos state in Nigeria.

  107. Hi to all can I gave diclofenac injection for the patient who have PID? nice moment

  108. please can someone be able to concieve after treatment?

  109. please I have pid please help me with the treatment please I don’t want to die

  110. is this PID curable and nutritionally what can l include in my diet to supplement the medication

    • Yes, if PID is diagnosed early, it can be treated. However, treatment won’t undo any damage that has already happened to your reproductive system. The longer you wait to get treated, the more likely it is that you will have complications from PID.
      Eat calcium-rich foods, including beans, almonds, and dark green leafy vegetables (spinach and kale). Eat antioxidant-rich foods, including fruits (blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes) and vegetables (squash and bell pepper). Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pasta, and sugar.

  111. Your Name Gerryson

    My wife got (PID) treatment and better but some yrs later she face it again.What kind of drugs will help her.

    • The condition can return if the initial infection isn’t entirely cleared. This is often because the course of antibiotics wasn’t completed or because a sexual partner wasn’t tested and treated.
      Note: Consult a gynecologist for appropriate treatment.

  112. Please what drugs can my wife take to that infection her period is not pure red 🔴 colour

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