Migraine – Causes, Pathophysiology, and Treatment.


A migraine is a neurological condition that causes a severe or a moderate headache on one side of the head with throbbing pain. This headache may radiate towards the forehead or temple, eyes and makes a person to develop nausea, vomiting, vision problems, and sensitivity to normal light or mild exertion.

People describe migraine pain as:

  • Pulsating
  • Throbbing
  • Perforating
  • Pounding
  • Debilitating

“Classic” migraines begin with an aura such as seeing visual field changes (dots, wavy lines, blurriness) about an hour or less before the pain begins.


A migraine is a brain disorder that involves an altered regulation and control of afferents, with a particular focus on the cranium. The once-popular vascular theory of a migraine, which suggested that a migraine headache was caused by the dilatation of blood vessels, while the aura of migraine resulted from vasoconstriction, is no longer considered viable. Vasodilatation, if it occurs at all during spontaneous migraine attacks, is probably an epiphenomenon resulting from instability in the central neurovascular control mechanism.

Types of a migraine

  • A migraine with aura – where there are specific warning signs just before a migraine begins, such as seeing flashing lights.
  • A migraine without aura – It is the most common type, where a migraine occurs without the specific warning signs.
  • Migraine aura without a headache, also known as a silent migraine – where an aura or other migraine symptoms are experienced, but a headache doesn’t develop.


The exact causes of a migraine are still unknown.

  • Migraines may be caused by changes in the brainstem and its interactions with the trigeminal nerve, a major pain pathway.
  • Imbalances in brain chemicals such as serotonin regulate pain in the nervous system. But still, research is going on to study the actual role of serotonin during migraines.
  • Generally, serotonin levels drop during migraine attacks. This may cause your trigeminal nerve to release substances called neuropeptides, which travel to your brain’s outer covering (meninges). The result is migraine pain. Other neurotransmitters play a role in the pain of a migraine, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).

Risk factors

  • Changes in the weather
  • Changes in your daily schedule
  • Skipping a meal
  • Change in your sleeping pattern
  • Strong light
  • Smells which stimulate
  • Strong noises
  • Menstruation
  • Ovulation
  • Pill-free days if you take the pill.

Risk factors of a migraine from food

  • Wine
  • Chianti
  • Derivatives of red wine
  • Champagne
  • Sherry
  • Beer and white wine


  • Eye pain
  • Sensitivity to light or sound
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Severe pain
  • Food cravings
  • Depression
  • Fatigue or low energy
  • Frequent yawning
  • Hyperactivity
  • Irritability
  • Neck stiffness


  • Extensive deterioration in the quality of life.
  • Significant disability, affecting home life, work, and social activities.

Diagnosis and Test

Doctors diagnose migraines by listening to your symptoms, taking a thorough medical and family history, and performing a physical exam to rule out other potential causes. Imaging scans, such as a CT scan or MRI, can rule out other causes, including:

  • Tumors
  • Abnormal brain structures
  • Stroke

Treatment and medication

Migraines can’t be cured, but your doctor can help you manage them. Your treatment plan depends on your age, frequency of a migraine, type, and symptoms. The treatment pattern includes the combination of the following steps:

  • Self-care migraine remedies
  • Lifestyle adjustments, including stress management and avoiding migraine triggers.
  • OTC pain or migraine medications, such as NSAIDs or acetaminophen (Tylenol)
  • Painkillers – including over-the-counter medications such as paracetamol and ibuprofen
  • Triptans – medications that can help reverse the changes in the brain that may cause migraines
  • Anti-emetics – medications often used to reduce nausea and vomiting
  • Counseling
  • Alternative care, which may include biofeedback, meditation, acupressure, or acupuncture


  • Sleep Smart: Sleep is a critical trigger. Too long or too little sleep can bring on a migraine. Therefore it is much important to have your sleep time constant.
  • Do not skip your meals. When your blood sugar level drops brain is the first organ that feels it. Hunger is the common cause of headaches.
  • Be conscious of your caffeine level.
  • Sometimes drastic exercise activity can spark a migraine. Following moderate activity will give your overall health a boost and help you stay headache-free.
  • Even dehydration can cause a migraine and so it is a must to drink too much water when you are roaming under the sunlight.
  • Hours in front of a computer or TV can strain your eyes. Eyestrain leads to head pain. Take breaks often. Stretch, close your eyes, and get up to get your blood flowing.
  • Sometimes tooth pain can also trigger a migraine thus it is advised to take care of your teeth health.

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  1. aaah what is the Rx of that condition

  2. what is particularly allopathy drug to give?

  3. what is the incidence

    • Migraine episodes may occur at any age, the incidence of migraine peaks during adolescence. One population-based study conducted in the US found that incidence of a migraine with aura peaked between 12 and 13 years of age and migraine without aura between 14 and 17 years of age.

  4. what is the nursing diagnosis for it

  5. changing of life style.
    incause of emergency should b given i.v metclopermid or dexamethasone.

  6. should given i.v dexamethasone or metclopermid .

  7. what are self migraine remedies

    • Drink a caffeinated beverage. In small amounts, caffeine alone can relieve migraine pain in the early stages or enhance the pain-reducing effects of acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) and aspirin.

  8. thanks for this, it wld help me a long way,I really suffer from this but always just buy roadside drugs to calm it down,didn’t know its a serious thing,really as they say”ignorance is a disease” thanks again

  9. Thank you very much for your accurate analysis on your feed.
    Just to be honest you have mentioned everything that was happening to me for years, I really struggled with migraine headaches.
    I later adjusted almost everything thing around me, from eating, sleeping, smells around me, waking up time, food stuffs, you name it. I love gardening a lot so my times are now changed. Realy working.
    I am now on a high blood treatment.

  10. what are those effective medicines of migraine?

  11. hope migraine is not communicable? if it is, how can someone contact it?

  12. Adjei Ransford

    Hi, my friend is having such symptoms on half of her head sometimes now, so what do we do now please

  13. I use to have a severe half headache.
    But I don’t feel it again for some few months now.
    Do I have to consult a doctor still, please?


  15. Ad eyemi Fadipe

    l am patient of immigrants pain tablet cannot cure it what next can be u

  16. Dr Shabbir Malik

    what will you say about the use of
    1.Naproxen sodium
    as a treatment of migrain.

  17. Rachel D Griffin-Morken

    I have a Chronic pain disorder from Auto Incidents; injuries to the CNS in the Spine & Head.
    Whiplash; rear-ended @a 4way Stop lights/Hwy 100 in ’93/’94-benign tumor removed from Stomach wall. In ’98/head impact on Windshield broke the glass. Both Airbags did NOT deploy/Dodge Daytona-Paasenger!
    In ’03;Frozen water pipe gushing out water/Bsmt/80% fnsh’d turned into a Lake!
    Farmer’s Ins, Umbrella Policy DENIED 125% Extended Coverage!
    Gov’t Grants/Housing Rehab:Didn’t remove toxins; They’d kept $!

  18. exactly correct

  19. i am suffering from maigrain almost 8 years and taking too much painkillers to releive it…i am a girl and 24 aged.isnt the pain killer bad for my health?

  20. .im 27years old…breastfeed of 1 @1/2yr old bby….i think in a week 2-3times i suffered headache..lalo pag mainit ang panahon
    then blur eyesight……i cannot sleep well at night

  21. i also have migrain send me simple treatment of this pain occur on the front of eye

  22. Sometimes I will be feeling itching on my forehead then dizziness follows with heavy vomiting with my eyes closed once I opened my eyes vomiting continued I will be staggering for some days like a drunk

  23. thanks for your good work God blessing open u

  24. thanks

  25. Ebenezer BarnesYour Name

    Have been experiencing severe sensation headache on forehead and on top of my skull ( head). Is like there’s fire set on my head. l sometimes get confuse in the mind. Is it a symptom of migraine.

  26. what do you say about this drug called Vasograin ?Am a 37 year old lady and have been experiencing this headache for some years now especially during my monthly periods,attending occasions,strong smells and light so l was advised to take the above mentioned drug.

  27. super app

  28. it’s good app

  29. For 20yrs am suffering from severe pains in my head but I have been taking painkillers drugs which led me to be addicted to the drugs,
    pls what should I do to get rid of the drugs?

  30. Ashok Kumar Ghadai

    it’s good news for migraine .plz solve my question any time my head is migraine at 12hour one day plz advice me what can I do .plz tell me which food , which exercise which medicine to apply and relief my headache to solved.

  31. Thanks for the tip I have had such feeling for over 3 Weeks now it’s Time to follow /or pay more attention to the Teachings migraine Headache has troubled me

  32. plz I use to wear lens but for 2 years after it got Missen which I haven’t replaced I have been getting bad headaches

  33. for two month now have the same issue pls tell what medicine should I take I have Ben to hospital still the same thing

  34. thanks for this
    But why magrain can’t be cured permanently?

    • There is no cure for migraine, but many drugs can treat or even prevent some of the headaches. You can also get migraines less often when you avoid triggers that cause them, such as drinking red wine or getting too little sleep.

  35. thanks so much for this, have been going through exactly what u describe. the doctors advised me to take painkillers…..bt will I have to depend on painkillers forever since it has no permanent cure? please help, I can’t live for two days without getting a severe or mild headache.

  36. please don’t we have any herbal medicine for the treatment

  37. also stress can cause migraine and any infection (bacterial,viral etc)

  38. Priyavandana chaudhari

    sumatriptans,rizatriptans,zolmitriptans they all triptans are used for the migraine headache .
    lemon with ginger tea can help to prevents the migraine.
    Ergotamine with caffeine pcm combination medicine available for the migraine .

  39. Marie Angelique Imperial

    how long can you be affected by migraine once you have an attack?

    • Migraines are disabling headaches that most likely stem from problems with the nerves and blood vessels in the head. Migraine headaches typically last from 4-72 hours. They may occur as often as several times a week to only once a year. People who have migraines are called migraineurs.

  40. is there any remedy for migrain through herbal. plz be educate us.

    • Avoid hot dogs. Diet plays a vital role in preventing migraines.
      Apply lavender oil. Inhaling lavender essential oil may ease migraine pain.
      Apply peppermint oil.
      Sign up for yoga.

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