Candidiasis – Causes, Diagnosis, and Prevention.


Candidiasis is an infection caused by the microorganism called Candida albicans mostly occurs on the skin. Candida is a type of yeast or fungus, and candidiasis is called a yeast infection. There are more than 20 types of Candida and they can live in our bodies causing no problems at all. However, in warm, moist conditions the fungi can multiply and cause infections. These can range from the harmless but irritating, some of them are vaginal thrush or nappy rash and infections that spread through the entire body, especially with the weakened immune systems can be life-threatening. Adults can also have yeast infections under the breast and beneath other skin folds.

Affecting areas of Candida

Types of candidiasis

  • Oral candidiasis or Esophagitis: Candidiasis that occurs in the mouth is a mycosis of Candida species present in the mucous membrane of the mouth.
  • Vaginal candidiasis: Candidiasis in the vagina is commonly called a vaginal yeast infection or vaginal thrust.
  • Nail candidiasis: When dermatophytes infect the nails, the nails become thick, swollen and tender, split, become dull, and may fall off.
  • Armpit candida: when candida species affects the skin under armpit eventually skin turns red and can be little raw.

Pathogenesis of candidiasis

  • albicans containing various known virulence factors which help in the spreading of infections in the human being and favors its pathogenicity.
  • The virulence factors of the albicans have the great role in the pseudohyphae formation by attached with epithelial cells (in respiratory tract), endothelial cells (in blood vessels), hyphal switching, surface recognition molecules, phenotypic switching and extracellular hydrolytic enzyme i.e. proteinase and phospholipase production have been suggested to be virulence attributes for Candida.

Pathogenesis of candidiasis

  • Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes seem to play an important role in candida overgrowth, as these enzymes facilitate adherence and tissue penetration and hence the invasion of the host, among the most important hydrolytic enzymes produced by Candida are phospholipases and secreted aspartyl proteinases.
  • Due to their virulence factors like adhesions property, the colonization of the Candida is take place in superficial tissue (local site) or it invades the deeper into the host tissue in yeast form but they transformed into the hyphal form during active infection.


  • Although albicans is the most common cause of candidemia, there has been the increased isolation of non-albicans species of Candida in recent years.
  • In a multi-center surveillance study conducted in the United States between 2004 and 2008, 54% of 2019 bloodstream isolates represented non-albicans Candida spp and 46% represented albicans.

Causes of candidiasis

Yeast overgrowth can be triggered by:

  • Antibiotics
  • Steroids
  • Contraceptive pills
  • Catheters and IV drips
  • Pregnancy
  • Menstruation
  • Sperm
  • Diabetes

Risk factors

  • Patients who have a central venous catheter
  • When consumed with broad-spectrum antibiotics
  • Very low neutrophil in blood
  • People who experience kidney failure or undergoing hemodialysis
  • People who underwent surgery, especially gastrointestinal surgery
  • Eating a diet high in sugar and refined carbs
  • High alcohol intake
  • A weakened immune system
  • Taking oral contraceptives
  • High-stress levels

Symptoms of candidiasis

  • Oral Thrush
  • Tiredness and Fatigue
  • Recurring Genital or Urinary Tract Infections
  • Digestive Issues
  • Sinus Infections
  • Skin and Nail Fungal Infections

  • Joint Pain

Complications due to candidiasis

  • Depression
  • Psychosexual problems
  • Male thrush- If a candidiasis woman is having sexual contact with their partner male thrush arises.

  • If vaginal candidiasis is left untreated, it can cause vaginitis, which is an inflammation of the vagina
  • Fungal infections- The most common fungal infection that can occur is tinea (ringworm)

Diagnosis and test

Lab Tests

Comprehensive Stool Analysis: A stool analysis starts with sample collection. At the lab, your stool will be analyzed for levels of yeast, pathogenic bacteria, and friendly bacteria. Especially the Candida albicans and several other pathogenic microorganisms are witnessed. Also examining for pH, inflammation markers, and conducting a thorough evaluation of your gut health and digestive processes.

Candida Antibodies Test: Our immune system produces three different types of antibodies in response to a Candida infestation. These are the IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies. The levels of each of these antibodies indirectly signify the Candida overgrowth or have been present in the recent past.

Organic Acid Test: Candida overgrowth leaves evidence is your urine. There are certain organic waste products created by Candida albicans that are not naturally found in your body. By looking for these waste products in your urine, it is possible to evaluate whether there is an imbalance in the gut and to guess at which pathogenic organisms might be causing it.

The Spittle Test: Here’s a simple test that some people claim will diagnose your Candida overgrowth.

  1. When you get up in the morning, and before you brush your teeth, eat or drink anything, fill a glass with bottled water at room temperature.
  2. Spit some saliva gently into the glass.
  3. Come back every 20 minutes for the next hour and check for some of these ‘tell-tale signs’ of Candida:
  • Strings’ coming down through the water from the saliva at the top
  • Cloudy saliva sitting at the bottom of the glass
  • Opaque specks of saliva suspended in the water

Gastrointestinal candidiasis

Endoscopy with or without biopsy is necessary to establish the diagnosis.

Treatment and medications

Treatment of candidiasis varies, depending on the area affected:

  • Thrush – Usually treated with topical, antifungal medications such as nystatin (Mycostatin and others) and clotrimazole.
  • Esophagitis – it can be treated with an oral anti-fungal drug such as fluconazole.
  • Cutaneous candidiasis – This skin infection can be effectively treated with a variety of antifungal powders and creams. The affected area must be kept clean and dry and protected from chafing.
  • Vaginal yeast infections: Vaginal yeast infections can be treated with antifungal medications such as butoconazole (Femstat), clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin), miconazole (Monistat, Vagistat, and others), nystatin (Mycostatin and others), and tioconazole (Monistat-1, Vagistat-1). A single dose of oral fluconazole can be used. Sex partners usually do not need to be treated.
  • Deep candidiasis: This infection usually starts with an intravenous anti-fungal drug, such as voriconazole or fluconazole. People with very low white blood cell counts may need an alternative intravenous anti-fungal drug, such as caspofungin or micafungin.


  • Eat a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and non-fat dairy products.
  • Control diabetes: Good control of blood sugar levels decreases the risk of yeast infections anywhere on your body.
  • Avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics.

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  1. my wife usaully fill pain through his mouth the white soars on her lips and her vagina wall became with small white then turns red and pain when having sex or passing urine,itching also.What is this disease.

    Dave kungu

  2. some vaginal candidiasis is also treated with metronidazole .

  3. Thanks alot. I use to be a regular victim of Candida infection, especially during the early stage of pregnancy but I’ve somehow managed to get over it without knowing exactly how I managed to do that, I just know that I stopped having it. This post is quite helpful as it has given me insight of it’s causes, pathology and possible management/treatment procedures.
    Thank you so much.

  4. nice now i can prevent and cure disease cadiasis

  5. among all the drugs which one is the best for treating deep candiasis

    • The rapid pace of antifungal drug development has resulted in the recent licensure of 2 new antifungal drugs (voriconazole and caspofungin), along with the active development of 4 others (ravuconazole, posaconazole, micafungin, and anidulafungin).

  6. best medication for candidiasis

    • antifungal medications such as butoconazole (Femstat), clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin), miconazole (Monistat, Vagistat, and others), nystatin (Mycostatin and others), and tioconazole (Monistat-1, Vagistat-1). A single dose of oral fluconazole can be used.

  7. Dapaah Sylvester

    peeled garlic inserted in the vagina can easily cure viginal candidiasis

  8. what are the symptoms of vaginal candidatis?

    • the symptoms of vaginal candidiasis include:
      vaginal itching
      swelling around the vagina
      burning during urination or sex
      pain during sex

  9. I’m grateful because I have learn some thing concerning candida

  10. how can I treat vagina yeast at home

  11. Davies Abong'o Your Name

    I was diagnosed with Candida Oesophaghitis and put on medication for two weeks but still feeling it. Can it be resistant to medication ?

  12. Please I had candidaisi

  13. I had vagina discharges for almost 15 years now and am still battling with the problem, even as i speak now i still have some rashes around my private part, my period doesn’t flow well I also have challenges in conception. I have been married for the past 4 years and I had no child to call my own. My husband is also affected with complications which I know he got from me please can you and your institution be of help to us we need your help and advice since we try some medications which failed

  14. I’m some recurring underneath genital rashes for some years along with regurgitation of food. bloating and a foul fart is also random of me. I have tried these medications with my doctor but in no time will this occur. am afraid i will infect my lady. I need a combating medication to be free from this disease.
    it’s worrisome

  15. thanks, it’s really beneficial

  16. pls how do I cure candida albican?tnx

  17. I have itching around my private parts,and also some rash wen I itch,what do I do

  18. Abdul Karim Zenabu

    what medicine is for deep Candida


    my wife after birth is having serious candidiasis,how can she treat this?

  20. Dr Parmeshwar N Suryawanshi

    Thanks for detailed lnfo on candidiasis.
    I am a diabetic.long standing .suffering from Tinea cruris n corporis.Taken Luliconazole cream/Tab Terbest-250 mg× expected relief.Pls suggest

  21. I always notice some fluid in my private part like milk not thick but very light like milk and I went to hospital and they took a scan and told me I have pod fluid in my private part. They gave me drugs, I have finished taken it but I still have the same problem. What can I do?

  22. please i have been experiencing some yellowish discharges from my Virginia what do I do?

  23. I have itching around my vaginal with some rashes what should I do

  24. mine is itches me on laps then when I scratch it small boils appear..
    which drug ?? should I use??

  25. thank you so much l always have this problem of candidiasis

  26. I have a delayed ovulation and have been treating yeast infection, pls what can I use to ovulate back .trying to conceive

  27. what can I use to ovulate

  28. blood come out of my wife vagina after sex. how to control

  29. calvince Ochieng

    hav already learn that candida is vry very dangerous disease in this country .so the doctor to give a lot of Advice to those have nt been Affected by candida

  30. calvince Ochieng

    thank fr accepting my comment

  31. Have seen change to my urine.what could be the problem.. plz help
    have been itching on my private parts.. n unus like 2 to 3 days bt now am not feeling any itching.

  32. How can Gonorrihea be prevented

  33. Please when treating candida infection, does the antibiotics used have side effects?

  34. pls am having pimples, discharge and itching in my Virgina and on my armpit, and I’ve consulted a diagnostic and the result came out that I have candida and yeast, and I’ve treated myself with cipro antibiotics drip and others, but to no avail, pls which of the drug that u prescribed now should I take for a better result, thanks

  35. parsmore D. Boadi Williams Your Name

    so please of all the candida drugs mention above, which one of the drug is good for deep vigina candida…

  36. it’s hard to treated candidiasis

  37. I’ve been experiencing the yeast infection for about a year now and I’ve been taking drugs to get away with it yet no result

  38. comment faire le traitement?

  39. In 2015 Wen I had this gonorrhoeal I used a drug (ADay kid) it contain Fluconazole, Azithromycin n secnidazole and the stuff went off.

  40. please give me a remedy on how I can treat uti because I have been treating it and it comes back am almost giving up

  41. won’t my sex partner have the infection

  42. what’s a nice presentation
    have learn alot
    keep it up

  43. when treating the infection, do well to change your under wears in order not to have a reoccurrence esp ladies can use panty liners while treating the infection

  44. Change ur underwear while treating the infection

  45. can you get it on your scalp

    • Most people with familial candidiasis have chronic or recurrent yeast infections that begin in early childhood. Skin infections lead to a rash with crusty, thickened patches; when these patches occur on the scalp, they can cause loss of hair in the affected area (scarring alopecia).

  46. Pls which oral contraceptive can cause candidiasis

  47. which amount of fluconazole do someone use for vaginal candidiasis

    • Oral dosage: 400 milligrams (mg) on the first day, followed by 200 mg once a day for at least 10 to 12 weeks. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed.
      But please consult a doctor before consume the dosage.

  48. please can I use detol to bath

  49. how am I go to threat this

  50. can i use Gyno-Daktarin to treat candidiasis

  51. treatment of candidiasis is not an easy thing, during treatment, u have to avoid sex

  52. can i clean the vagina with salvon when treating candidiasis

    • Never wash inside the vagina (even with just water) – it cleans itself. If you do wash, wipe or rinse the vagina you destroy its natural environment and upset the balance of healthy bacteria and yeast.

  53. please there are rashes on my penis itching me always and even my body, I have injected benzatin penicillin but still my condition is persisting. please what should i do?

  54. Liasiddzi Queenly

    For vaginal discharge and irritation, which medicine is needed?

  55. Ngong Christohper

    I and my wife have Candida and were given fluconazole and it did not treat us can we continue the drugs again

  56. I hv dis itchy boils-like rashes around my vagina…. Its so so painful… Av taken so many antibiotics but it disappears and reappears…..
    Pls I need help

  57. am Aman but I got Small red spots on ma head of pensis it Candida

  58. Thank you so much for this. Do pevaryl and ovules also help in treating candida? i was precribed that in the hospital, but I still feel itches, at times more seriously than before. what do I do in this case, please?

  59. Halima Ahmad Bukar

    what are the possible treatment of yeast infection

    • When treating an uncomplicated yeast infection, a short-course of vaginal therapy is normally sufficient.
      One option is a one-time treatment of a prescription or an over-the-counter medication such as butoconazole (Gynazole-1), clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin), miconazole (Monistat 3), and terconazole (Terazol 3). Some of these are available to buy online, including clotrimazole, Monistat 3, and terconazole.

  60. l have thrush in side my mouth but l tried several treatment but nothing seems to change pliz help me

  61. please which medicine do I use to cure Virginia candida with out visiting a doctor

    • Clotrimazole 1% cream 5 g intravaginally daily for 7–14 days.
      Clotrimazole 2% cream 5 g intravaginally daily for 3 days.
      Miconazole 2% cream 5 g intravaginally daily for 7 days.
      Miconazole 4% cream 5 g intravaginally daily for 3 days.
      Miconazole 100 mg vaginal suppository, one suppository daily for 7 days.

      Note: It is advised to consult a doctors prescription for appropriate medicines.

  62. can itracanazole treat the vaginal yeast infectionI tried every thing but it recurrent

  63. Afeh VictoriaYour Name

    can mycostat treat the yeast infection

    • This medication is used to treat vaginal fungal infections, commonly called vaginal yeast infections. It helps to reduce itchiness, redness, and irritating discharge.

  64. how do I treat candidiasis during pregnancy

    • During pregnancy, Candida (and the infections it causes) is even more common.
      Imidazoles (such as clotrimazole) are more effective. Imidazoles are best but pregnant women may need longer (7 not 4 day) courses.

  65. never knew it affects the body

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