Sickle cell anemia – Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments.


Sickle cell anemia, or sickle cell disease (SCD), is a genetic disease of the red blood cells (RBCs). Normally, RBCs are shaped like discs, which give them the flexibility to travel through even the smallest blood vessels. However, with this disease, the RBCs have an abnormal crescent shape resembling a sickle. This makes them sticky and rigid and prone to getting trapped in small vessels, which blocks blood from reaching different parts of the body. This can cause pain and tissue damage.


Sickle cell and normal blood cell


Normal blood flow and sickle cell blocking blood flow


There are several types of sickle cell disease. The most common are:

  1. Sickle Cell Anemia (SS),
  2. Sickle Hemoglobin-C Disease (SC),
  3. Sickle Beta-Plus Thalassemia,
  4. Sickle Hemoglobin-D Disease and
  5. Sickle Beta-Zero Thalassemia.

Sickle Cell Anemia (SS): When a child inherits one substitution beta globin genes (the sickle cell gene) from each parents, the child has Sickle Cell Anemia (SS).

Sickle Hemoglobin- C Disease (SC): Individuals with Sickle Hemoglobin-C Disease (SC) have a slightly different substitution in their beta globin genes that produces both hemoglobin C and hemoglobin S.

Sickle Beta-Plus Thalassemia: Sickle beta-plus thalassemia affects beta globin gene production. The size of the red blood cell is reduced because less beta protein is made. If inherited with the Hb S gene, you will have haemoglobin S beta thalassemia. Symptoms are not as severe.

Sickle Hemoglobin-D Disease: Through research, hemoglobin D, which is a different substitution of the beta globin gene, has been found to interact with the sickle hemoglobin gene.

Sickle Hemoglobin-O Disease: Hemoglobin O, another type of substitution in the beta globin gene, also interacts with sickle hemoglobin.


  • The symptoms related to sickle cell crises were known by various names in Africa, long before they were recognized in the western hemisphere. Symptoms of sickle cell anemia could be tracked back to year 1670 in one Ghanian family.
  • It was in 1910 when James Herrick observed, “peculiar elongated sickle shaped RBCs” in the blood of an anemic black medical student, and then the scientific community came to know about it.
  • It was the discovery of Emmel in 1917 of the sickling phenomenon, in vitro, in the members of a family which first suggested the genetic basis for sickling. So it was discovered to be an inheritable condition. Later on it was explained that the sickling phenomenon, in vitro, was due to deprivation of oxygen.
  • Both Huck and Sydenstricker, who did the detailed analysis of the pedigrees of Huck’s patients, concluded that the sickle cell phenomenon was inherited as a Mendelian autosomal recessive characteristic.

Statistics on sickle cell anemia

The main pathology of the sickle cell syndrome is an abnormality of the haemoglobin gene, the oxygen carrying protein of the bloodstream. The sickle cell form of this gene is most commonly carried by the African population, with approximately 8% of African Americans carrying the sicle cell disease gene. In other regions such as India and the Middle East, different abnormalities exist in the haemoglobin gene, causing a similar pattern of disease. The gene is relatively uncommon amongst caucasian populations.

Causes of sickle cell anemia

The basic cause of sickle cell anemia involves hemoglobin, a component of the red cells in the blood. The hemoglobin molecules in each red blood cell carry oxygen from the lungs to organs and tissues and then bring back carbon dioxide for removal by the lungs. In sickle cell anemia, this process is disrupted. After the hemoglobin molecules give up their oxygen, some of them may cluster together and form long, rod-like structures that become stiff and assume a sickle shape and gene mutation is also leads to inherited one gene for hemoglobin S from each parent.

Symptoms of sickle cell anemia

  1. Yellow eyes
  2. Painful swelling of hands and feet
  3. Frequent pain episodes
  4. Stunted growth
  5. Stroke
  6. Anemia (looking pale)
  7. Dark urine

Diagnosis and testing of sickle cell anemia

  • A blood test can check for hemoglobin S- the defective form of hemoglobin that underlies sickle cell anemia.
  • Sickle cell disease can be diagnosed in an unborn baby by sampling some of the fluid surrounding the baby in the mother’s womb (amniotic fluid) to look for the sickle cell gene.
  • DNA analysis: This test is used to investigate alterations and mutations in the genes that produce hemoglobin components. It may be performed to determine whether someone has one or two copies of the Hb S mutation or has two different mutations in hemoglobin genes (e.g., Hb S and Hb C).

Treatment and medications in recent trends

  • Rehydration with intravenous fluids helps red blood cells return to a normal state. The red blood cells are more likely to deform and assume the sickle shape if you’re dehydration.
  • Treating underlying or associated infections is an important part of managing the crisis, as the stress of an infection can result in a sickle cell crisis. An infection may also result as a complication of a crisis.
  • Blood transfusions improve transport of oxygen and nutrients as needed. Packed red cells are removed from donated blood and given to patients.
  • Supplemental oxygen is given through a mask. It makes breathing easier and improves oxygen levels in the blood.
  • Pain medication like morphine is used to relieve the pain during a sickle crisis.
  • Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea) helps to increase production of fetal hemoglobin. It may reduce the number of blood transfusions.
  • Immunizations can help prevent infections. Patients tend to have lower immunity.
  • Bone marrow transplant has been used to treat sickle cell anemia.

Prevention of sickle cell anemia

  • Drinking plenty of water (hydration).
  • Avoiding extremely hot or cold temperatures.
  • Avoiding places or situations with low oxygen, such as high altitudes, military boot camp, or strenuous athletic training.
  • Getting plenty of rest and taking frequent breaks during exercise.
  • Taking the medicine Hydroxyurea. People taking hydroxyurea must be monitored regularly by a doctor to ensure the right dose is given for the best effect.


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  3. Your Name Zebelean J Hill

    Thanks for the information about how it works on the body sprit and soul. 62 YEARS OLD and blessed i had this SICKLE CELL all my life.Blood transitions and pain in my body.please find a cure for us.

  4. I’ve been having sickle cell all my life and sucks…having to be in very bad pain all the time and taking trips to the emergency room every I can learn more about this disease

  5. I have a daughter with sickle cell anaemia,how can I get final healing for her?

    • Gene therapy is the most advanced treatment for cure of sickle cell anemia. Approach gene therapist and doctors to get cure.

  6. Thanks for the information it’s so great to get facts. You can be sure to better understand our health PROMBLES.

  7. When is the right time to check for sickle cell in unborn baby during pregnancy.
    can i terminate a pregnancy if it is sickle baby.

  8. am 31yrs man of sickle cell (sc) I hv stop having the crisis about three years ago is that means am now normal or what? secondly am still single because of the disease no one is ready to marry me.pls what should I do?

    • Sickle cell anemia can be cured. But even if you’re normal get consulted with a doctor before getting married bcs it may genetically inherit to your next generation.

  9. Hi,I can’t remember the last time i had
    crisis, the only thing that bothers me is yellowish eye. Is there a way one can achieve a white eye ball. Thank you. Keep up the good work.

  10. My kid had two consecutive strokes with in just a month… the last one appeared to have taken part of his brain for months… What might have caused that..

  11. A patient come with complain of abdomen pain and fever for three day but on the examination the child have slpeenomegaly what could be the diagnosis

    • diagnosis of splenomegaly are Blood tests, Ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic resonance imagining (MRI).

  12. hw can I finish this thing called sickle cell in my body

  13. Was told that the hydroxyurea is not ideal for the haemoglobin-C type. Instead have been using Dioscovite. Please advise.

  14. its like am sickle anemic. the symptomn tell me so. I feel weak ,sleepy most of the time,my urine is ever yellow and so are my eyes,and am becoming very slow to think ,muscle pain.
    what do you think ? can it be truth that am anemic ?

  15. hi! i was thinking i have an anemia.. due to my experienced last night i palpitate and feel dizzy then after a minuite i experienced my body numb.. i would like to ask..what could it be? please help me..

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  17. can i drink milk while taking te haemup medicine for anemia??

  18. how to deal with the periapesm which occur as acomplication in children

  19. am sickle cell an am pregnant pls what can I take for me and my ba

  20. yes dear what is ph ????

    • pH is a scale used to specify how acidic or basic a water-based solution is. Acidic solutions have a lower pH, while basic solutions have a higher pH. At room temperature, pure water is neither acidic nor basic and has a pH of 7.

  21. my daughter is SS plz which durgz can she be taking to avoid crisis

  22. My child is injected Benzathine every month as a sickle cell patient.What is so special with Benzathine?

    • Benzathine benzylpenicillin, also known as benzathine penicillin G, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. Specifically it is to treat strep throat, diphtheria, syphilis, and yaws. It is also used to prevent rheumatic fever. It is given by injection into a muscle.

  23. very nice explanations I have six children’s but not having a case of such sickness until of my sixth son discovered a Carrier Doe’s such case happens to such a multiple children’s while one become a victims?

  24. Shuaib Ramat ajibola

    I need the cure badly,I can not bear the pain my son is going through

  25. Sulaiman Danmalam

    what are the medicine that can use for small boy under 1to2years?

    • Penicillin –Extremely important in preventing serious infection in children with sickle cell disease.
      Folic Acid – B vitamin that helps your body to make healthy red blood cells.
      Tylenol/Acetaminophen – may be used for treatment of pain. Do not give for fever unless directed by a sickle cell doctor or nurse.
      Motrin/Advil/Ibuprofen – may be used for treatment of pain. Do not give for fever unless directed by a sickle cell doctor or nurse.

  26. I am a girl of 14 years. I am also a sickle cell patient, how can I get cured totally

    • Stem cell or bone marrow transplants are the only cure for sickle cell disease, but they’re not done very often because of the significant risks involved. Stem cells are special cells produced by bone marrow, a spongy tissue found in the centre of some bones. They can turn into different types of blood cells.

  27. I asked my doctor whether sickle cell can be cured but he said no. I’m scared I always think I will die prematurely. what can I do

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